Lascaux 16 – words and compounds naming the horse / İ 2018 by Franz Gnaedinger
mythology becomes history (Indo-European homeland) / Zeus (all but a simple name) / Lapiths and Centaurs (a story from the beginning of the Bronze Age) / Titans (2 parts) / cosmology of Lascaux (3 parts) / Basque zaldi 'horse' (a shifting compound) / PIE horse (making the test case more specific) / IE horse sacrifice (inauguration of a king) / wild or domesticated? (historical depth of field) / Bactra-Zariaspa and Pakistan (more toponyms) / Hindukush Kashmir Pamir (how to get behind overformings) / an early Finnish calendar (2 parts) / sun horse and moon bull running (Lascaux) / Hungarian moon and sun (and the Finnish counterparts) / magic spell (enforcing a wall) / Chauvet cave (origin of a wandering tale) / tentative etymologies of rasna 'Etruscan' and tamna 'horse' (polished compounds) / Sardegna Sardinia (another Tyrrhenian colony ?) / Trossulum (a further horse formula ?)
mythology becomes history (Indo-European homeland)
The name of Zeus has been called the only one in the Greek pantheon that poses no problem, for it derives from something like *dyaeus. Now Derk Ohlenroth's decipherment of the Phaistos Disc revealed the Middle Helladic name of Zeus (around 1650 BC): Ss Ey R Sseyr. This version is not closer to *dyaeus but farther away. My reconstruction gives TYR as origin of Sseyr, he who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, present in Greek tyrant (originally a positive term, but when the maxim 'rule and give' was turned into 'rule and take' the word became negative). TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus, then also French Sieur monsieur English Sire sir, and German Herr – a title for every man. Derivatives of TYR abound in Central Asia, which made me locate the first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle of Termez – Kunduz – Kurgan T'upe. The second IE homeland would have been the Uralic steppes east of the ancient Rha modern Volga, and the third IE homeland the Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga – Rha akin to Rhea, mother of Zeus and Poseidon and Hades, her Gallo-Roman alter ego Epona riding a horse in lady fashion, accompanied by a bird, a foal, and a dog, which animals remind of eagle, horse and dog, emblematic animals of Zeus, Poseidon and Hades respectively, her main sanctuary Alesia at the base of Mont Ra, near a spring of the river Seine. The horse of the first IE homeland (that became later Bactria, rich in horses) was called AS PAC, upward AS horse PAC, naming little but strong pony-like horses used for carrying loads up a slope of a hill or mountain, accounting for Avestan aspa 'horse' and Sanskrit asva 'horse', while the emphatic form PAC AS AS, horse up up, named the winged horse Pegasos Pegasus, originally the embodiment of the hot summer wind Afghanetz that blows from the Aral Sea upward to the Hindukush, and, as horse of poetry, indicates an original saga or even epic from that region, an oral epic fragments of which survive in the oldest layer of Greek mythology. Now the horse of the second and third homeland was called by a phonetically similar but semantically different compound, AC PAS, an expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS – riding this animal you can get everywhere in the Eurasian steppes ... (PR slogan of an IE horse breeder ;-)
AS PAC aspa asva PAC AS AS Pegasos Pegasus
AC PAS hippos equus Epona hevonen
PIE subsumes all those horse names under *H1ekwos. Magdalenian makes a difference: two compounds and groups of derivatives.
My Latin dictionary says that the etymology of Latin caballus 'horse' is unknown. For this word we have to go back to Lascaux. Marie E.P. Knig identified the bull as moon bull, and the horse as sun horse. My reconstruction yielded CA LAB for the winter sun horse, sky CA cold LAB, accounting for gallop and German Klepper Ô(old) nagĠ; CA BEL or longer CA BEL IAS for the spring sun horse, sky CA warm BEL healing IAS, the warm sun healing ailments of a long and harsh winter, accounting for ABelios AFelios Helios, the Greek sun god with a quadriga of horses; and the summer sun horse CA BAL, sky CA hot BAL, accounting for Latin caballus and Spanish caballo. Hear them run across the heavenly pastures
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
What about German Ross wherefrom English horse? The inverse of TYR for an overcomer is RYT for a spear thrower, archer, Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector'. RYT accounts for German Reiter English rider, also for German Ritter 'knight' originally a riding archer, and for German Ross 'horse' an emphatic form of RYT, parallel to TYR Sseyr, and for the item Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider'.
The horse is the Indo-European animal par excellence. It was domesticated with bites cast from bronze. Bronze is the alloy of copper and tin. Copper ore and the tin ore cassitterite are associated in mines of the Alai Mountains above the first IE homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe. All comes together in that region.
Sir William Jones located the Indo-European homeland in greater Iran. Subsequently it was placed "anywhere from the North to the South Poles, from the Atlantic to the Pacific" (Mallory and Adams 2006). Now we can return to the first location, greater Iran, but with more precision. It would have been the land of Tiras mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 10:2), land of the worshippers of TYR AS, the overcomer TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, up above AS (in the sky), his emblematic animal the eagle; his brother Poseidon, originally a river god, his emblematic animal the horse, a herd of running horses undulating like waves; and their brother Hades, originally the god of mines, then of the Underworld, his animal the dog, once guarding the precious ores extracted from mines, then the guard of the Underworld. – Seen from the right angle, mythology becomes history.
Another memory of the first IE homeland would have been the oral epic of AD LAS Atlantis, a story of the First World before the Flood, toward AD mountain LAS, Eurasia oriented toward the world mountain in the center of the world island, populated by the First Race residing on the mountain, a reflex of which is found in the palace of Menelaos near the beginning of book 4 in the Odyssey.
Zeus (all but a simple name)
Test cases in historical sciences require discussions of conflicting opinions: who has the better arguments and can explain more with less effort? (Bacon's razor)
theos / deus Zeus Proto-Indo-European
theos deus / Zeus Magdalenian
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, accounts for Greek theos and Latin deus (incompatible in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian), while the emphatic doubling DhAG DhAG able able named the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god (Barry Cunliffe). Consider also Sumerian dingir (with a nasal infix) announcing a deity. Magdalenian TYR for the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give accounts for Zeus – TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus.
Zeus was an emanation of the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age who was named by a double formula
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ruler ShA activity of feet PAD overcomer TYR upward AS sky CA
The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR
up above AS in the sky CA / The able one DhAG ... (repetition)
ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter / TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, DhAG Dios, genitive of Zeus / DhAG theos deus / ShA...CA DhAG...CA Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev / ShA PAD Shiva and the TYR CA Durga emanation of his wife ...
Then we have ShA PAD Japhet and TYR AS Tiras in the Bible (Genesis 10), the latter a worshipper of the overcomer TYR up above AS, TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus up above in the sky, founder and ruler of the first Indo-European homeland on the middle course of the Amu Darya, perhaps from AMA TYR, mother AMA of TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus), Rhea from REO meaning river, once naming the Volga, formerly the Rha between the second IE homeland in the Uralic steppes and the third IE homeland in the Pontic steppes, Rhea Minoan Rheia the mother of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, her Gallo-Roman alter ego the horse goddess Epona.
Lapiths and Centaurs (a story from the beginning of the Bronze Age)
A Greek myth informs us about the conflict between the Lapiths, a rough mountain tribe, and the Centaurs, men with the body of a horse. When the Lapith man Pirithous married the most beautiful Lapith woman Hippodamia, he was so happy that he also invited the Centaurs to the wedding banquet. However, the Centaur Eurytion drank too much, fell in love with Hippodamia, tried to abduct her, and was killed by old Theseus. A battle ensued and was won by the Lapiths.
In my opinion, this had originally been a story from the banks of the Amu Darya, where the Greeks or Hellenes once had come from, GRA KOS Graekos Greek, decorated cave GRA heavenly vault KOS, a mine decorated with colored copper ore and glittering tin ore seen as a heavenly vault or cosmos within the Alai Mountains where copper and tin were found in association; KAL EN Hellenoi Hellenes, cave or Underworld or mine KAL inside EN, inside the beautiful kallos mine with colored copper ore and the glittering tin ore cassitterite making one think of the starry sky ...
The Lapiths would have been the first Indo-Europeans on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe, living in fortified settlements POL enveloped in palisades LOP wherefrom Lap- Lapiths.
Old Theseus was an able one DhAG, while PIR DhAG Pirithous was the able handler of the fire PIR that melted copper and tin and yielded bronze, bronze allowing to cast bites that were used to domesticate horses, Greek hippon damazein naming Hippodamia.
The Centaur Eurytion was a well-aiming archer RYT. He fought with a branch, while his fellow Centaurs also used rocks, meaning their arms were wooden lances and slingshots, whereas the Lapiths used gear made of metal. The metopes on the south side of the Parthenon show the Centaurs as old and the Lapiths as young men.
Who were the Centaurs? originally Afghans mining lapis lazuli and above all the very hard green stone used for making axes in the Neolithic. They had ponies for pack animals. When they walked next to them, they gave the funny impression of being men with the body of a horse. The word Centaur derives from Greek kento:r 'driver', in the given case pony drivers. They represented an old civilization, the ending Neolithic, while the Lapiths formed a young civilization, the beginning Bronze Age.
The Afghan stone miners trying to abduct Hippodamia means they tried to steal bronze that can tame horses, not just ponies, and has a parallel in a high tale from the end of the Bronze Age, when the Trojans laid hands on the precious tin destined for the Achaeans - abducting Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin.
Titans (part 1/2)
Uranus called his sons Titans meaning 'Strainers', Greek titaino 'I stretch, strain'. In the light of Magdalenian, Titan titaino derive from the old compound DhAG TON, the able ones DhAG make themselves heard TON – they make themselves heard while they strain. (Achilles storming toward the approaching Trojans resembled both a Titan and a thunderbolt from the hand of Zeus, TON tone Ton thunder Donner Donar). Seen philosophically, the Titans personified elements of nature and life that make themselves heard or felt or noticed one way or another, for example Themis incarnated divine Ordinance. DhAG means able, good in the sense of able. Among the very many derivatives are Greek theos and Latin deus (incompatible in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian), Sumerian dingir (with a nasal infix) announcing a deity, and the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god (Barry Cunliffe), from the emphatic doubling DhAG DhAG able able.
The Titans were children of Ouranos Uranus and Rhea. AAR RAA NOS was the sky god of the Gbekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, visualized ex negtivo by a big limestone ring ouranos.JPG He became the Greek sky god Ouranos, and the old sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley. AC CA personified the Gbekli Tepe as hill where the earth AC and sky CA are meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the act of creation. AC CA named the Indo-European earth goddess akka, the Hebrew mother of all life Hawwa English Eve, and, in the inverse form of CA AC, the Greek earth goddess Gaia.
Among their many children were a dozen Titans whom I locate in the PIE belt between the Gbekli Tepe in the West and Central Asia in the East. Among them were Kronos Cronus and Rhea; among their children Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades, gods of the first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe. Only that Zeus was known by then as TYR who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. Derivatives of TYR abound in geographical names of Central Asia.
The Titans were overcome in that region – overcome in the sense that life and mining in the ÔWild Wild EastĠ were regulated by Zeus who was not only a fighter and judge but also a mediator. And then history became mythology. The Gra KOS Graekoi Greeks and the KAL EN Hellenes wandered westward, whereupon the events around the first Indo-European homeland were transposed into the confines of the new Greek territory, making the old stories more gripping for a local audience. By and by their historical core was forgotten, but luckily the symbols including the telling names are so suggestive that their historical ÔDNAĠ survived for millennia.
English history contains the word story. French histoire and Italian storia mean both history and story, and so does German Geschichte, a noun to the verb geschehen 'happen'.
People strain and become larger than life by applying their abilities and make themselves heard, also in stories told about them, stories condensed from generation to generation, often assuming cosmic dimensions. The Titans were such people, on the long way from the Gbekli Tepe to Central Asia, from the Neolithic 1 to the Bronze Age.
Titans (part 2/2)
Among the many children of Ouranos and Gaia were a dozen Titans: Kronos, Koios, Krios, Japetos, Hyperion, Okeanos (six men) and Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosynae, Phoibe, Thetis (six women)
Remember the Gbekli Tepe calendar: a month had 30 days, a year 12 months plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 63 continuous periods of 30 days are 1,890 days and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months; mistake less than a minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.
Now imagine a portable calendar sanctuary of a dozen smaller and a pair of larger poles, the latter representing Ouranos and Gaia, placed in the center of a circle of the smaller poles representing the Titans in the positions of the hours on the dial of a mechanical watch, 12 North, 3 East, 6 South, 9 West. Each pole of the circle would represent a month of 30 days, and the larger poles in the center 5 and occasionally 6 more days: 3 days of the midsummer festival (Ouranos) and 2 and occasionally 3 days of the midwinter festival, raining season in the Gbekli Tepe region (Gaia).
Owing to the geographical latitude of the Gbekli and the entire PIE belt, leading from the region of the Gbekli Tepe to Central Asia and the first IE homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe, such a calendar sanctuary could also have been used as an astronomical observatory, offering the following sighting lines, a flat horizon provided
8--10, 7--11, 6--12, 5--1, 2--4 North
10--8, 11--7, 12--6, 1--5, 4--2 South
11--1, 10--2, 9--3, 8--4, 7--5 East, sunrise on the equinoxes
11--1, 2--10, 3--9, 4--8, 5--7 West, sunset on the equinoxes
10--12, 9--1, 8--2, 7--3, 6--4 midsummer sunrise
12--10, 1--9, 2--8, 3--7, 4--6 midwinter sunset
2--12, 3--11, 4--10, 5--9, 6--8 midsummer sunset
12--2, 11--3, 10--4, 9--5, 8--6 mindwinter sunrise
In a second version, the central poles could have represented Kronos and Rhea, metaphorically emasculating Kronos (remember the Greek myth) and replacing Gaia, while two Titans of the second generation could have taken the empty places in the circle, for example Atlas carrying the sky on his shoulders, and Leto who became the mother of the twins Artemis and Apollo.
And in a third version, TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus) and Hera could have replaced Kronos and Rhea ...
This final version could have been the calendar sanctuary of Termez on the Amu Darya, and if the name of that place should go back to the Bronze Age, it might originally have been TYR MmOS, the ruler of the first IE homeland having been an offspring MmOS of the heavenly overcomer TYR.
cosmology of Lascaux 1/3 (English horse an assimilation?)
RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector', would have accounted for German Ritter 'knight', originally a riding archer, and for the item Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider', Ross an emphatic form analogous to TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus.
The Celtic-Germanic isogloss *reidh- 'ride' led from RYT to Reiter and Ritter, while Proto-Germanic offers both *hrussa and *hursa for the horse. Are they the same word separated by a semantically irrelevant metathesis, ore are they derivatives of two entirely different words assimilated in naming the same animal?
Mallory and Adams 2006 mention that *kers- 'run' was perhaps nominalized in the word familiy of New English horse.
The origin of *kers- 'run' might have been CER meaning stag or hind, Latin cervus French cerf German Hirsch, also shaman or shamaness, consider Cernunnos wearing stag antlers
RYT rhytaer (hrytaer) *hrussa Ross
RYT *reidh- Reiter, Ross und Reiter, Ritter
CER *kers- (care) *hursa horse ??
The stag is an elegant runner. His running capacity must have been most impressive in the giant stag megaceros, emblem of the arch shaman and arch shamaness.
Lascaux and Altamira suggest a Divine or Cosmic Stag, and a Divine Hind or Hind Woman. CER KOS would have been the cosmic stag, his antlers appearing in the summer constellations we know as Sagittarius and Scorpio. His name would account for Latin quercus 'oak' and Gaulish rkos 'oak forest', owing to the similar ways that oak and stag antler branch. His consort would have been the Divine Hind CER -: I -: or CER LIL who called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Her image as Hind Woman was the dominating winter constellation across the sky from Sagittarius and Scorpio: ORE EON Orion, she on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the heavenly CA river or lake LAK together CA LAK overformed by Galaxy 'Milky Way'.
CER KOS would have been implored for running power: May he give the sun horse and moon bull the force to run all day and night long! May he and his helpers guard the entrances to and exits from the Underworld, passed by the sun horse and moon bull on their daily journey, securing their way so they can run freely, without being held up.
A group of red stags with oversized antlers are seen in the rotunda of Lascaux, facing a white bull and a red mare, both running side by side in clockwise direction. The glorious rotunda symbolizes midsummer, the red mare rising above the ledge the midsummer sun rising above the horizon, and the proud bull by her side a full moon occurring at the same time, ideal start of an eight-year period in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux. Apparently the stags guard an exit from the Underworld, granting a safe passage from the realm below to the sky above. (They are also astronomers observing sun and moon; the arrows and lances aimed at the animals being astronomical ideograms.)
Cernunnos wearing stag antlers would have been a descendant of the Divine Stag. He was one of the oldest Celtic gods, close to the supreme Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god (Barry Cunliffe), from the emphatic doubling DhAG DhAG able able. The Romans equated Cernunnos with none less than Jupiter. The Celtic lord of all the animals is depicted on the silver cauldron from Gundestrup, Denmark, seated between a stag and further animals, wearing a torque around his neck, and holding another torque in his raised right hand, between himself and the stag. The torque symbolized the daily orbit of the sun horse and moon bull, as indicated by tiny winged horses on a golden torque, and by bulls on several silver torques – gold for the sun, silver for the moon. Cernunnos must have cared for the cosmic order, making the world go on, giving the sun horse and moon bull the stamina to climb the sky and traverse the Underworld and return again on their daily journeys, running running running, always running, day in day out.
4,800 years ago riders from the steppes between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea arrived in Northern Europe (result of a genetic screening). A shaman in the service of the Divine Stag was given a new task: not only imploring his heavenly patron for the daily return of the sun horse, but also caring for actual horses, protecting their legs with magic formulae, and then, slowly, that shaman would have become what we now call a horse whisperer ...
CER might well have accounted for *kers- run', also for care, then for *hursa and the word family of English horse, in assimiltion to RYT rhytaer (hrytaer) *hrussa Ross, part of the item Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider', Reiter and the more emphatic Ritter via *reidh- 'ride'.
cosmology of Lascaux 2/3 (Divine or Cosmic Stag)
National Geographics, October 1988, published a beautifully illustrated article on the Lascaux cave. The caption to the big stag painted in the gallery says: "Fantastic nine-point antlers rise from the profile of a red deer in the Axial Gallery, its legs apparently left purposely incomplete, 13 dots and a rectangle could be identifiers or hunting tallies—yet another mystery in the glory of Lascaux."
Marie E.P. Knig identified the niche at the rear end of the gallery as midwinter, the line of descending horses as the tired winter sun horse, and the pair of antithetic ibices as emblem of the winter solstice. From there the sun horse moves along the gallery to the midsummer hall, in clockwise direction (like the sun does). The pair of lovely 'Chinese' horses convey the joy of a warm spring after a long and harsh winter. Then comes a dancing horse, just before the big stag. This one, two meters tall, roaring, is calling out to the horses, asking them to approach. He is the 'primum mobile' or prime mover who makes the sun horse and moon bull run, the horse just before him dance and prance, exult in the pleasure of the near summer – the midsummer hall begins right behind the stag.
The ideogram under him (read from left to right, in the running direction of the sun horse) consists of a big dot, a standing rectangle, and a horizontal line of 13 dots which replaces the forelegs of the stag. The big dot represents New Year on the summer solstice, June 21 in our modern calendar. The standing rectangle may suggest a calendar pattern of 28 by 13 pebbles for 364 days, and the line of 13 dots the 13 months of 28 days in a year – together a regular year of 365 days, which replaces the incomplete forelegs of the stag: he symbolizes running time that unfolds in the running of the sun horse and moon bull.
Now for the "fantastic nine-point antlers" that encode a further calendar, the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, together with ideograms of a subdivided square that indicate a subdivision of a square into 3 by 3 small squares, one of those ideograms below the antithetic ibices in the midwinter niche.
h i b
g a c
f e d
The nine points of the antlers correspond to the nine periods of time a b c d e f g h i, the five longer points of the right antler to the five periods a b d f h that form an oblique cross and have 41 days each, and the four shorter points of the left antler to the four periods c e g i that have 40 days each, in all a regular year of 365 days.
Also this year can be laid out with pebbles. Begin with a square of 14 by 14 pebbles and insert a square of 13 by 13 pebbles in the spaces between. Thus you obtain what I call a syncopic square. (The smallest syncopic square is the five on a dice, two by two dots, and one in the middle.) Now also the period of 41 days forms a syncopic square: 5 by 5 pebbles, inserted 4 by 4 pebbles.
Now for the ingenious lunar aspect of this calendar. Eight subsequent periods correspond to eleven lunations or synodic months counted in the 30 29 30 mode or the less accurate 29 30 29 mode, for example
a b c d e f g h 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 41 sum 325
30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 sum 325
If a full moon occurs on the summer solstice, June 21, beginning of period a, another full moon occurs eight periods later, at the beginning of period i, May 12 in our calendar. Eight years correspond to 99 lunations; then you have to add two leap days, and take the slow shift of the lunar cycle into consideration.
The big stag is involved with time. He makes time go on by conveying his energy as 'primum mobile' or prime mover to the sun horse and moon bull.
Actually, 'primum mobile' was a concept of Ptolemaic astronomy, the power that makes the moon and planets and sun and fixed stars revolve around the Earth. In the light of Lascaux, this idea reaches far back in time.
Stags were always depicted in cave art, however, from Lascaux onward, they gained much importance. In the Lascaux cave have been counted eighty-five red deer, Cervus elaphus, always placed at strategic points of a hall or gangway.
Why had the stag been chosen as prime mover?
Cervus elaphus, dubbed king of the woods, originally preferred open meadows and oak forests (remember CER KOS quercus rkos). The male can reach a height of 170 centimeters, and a weight of 250 kilograms in France, 425 kg in the Carpathean Mountains. He was observed and reported to leap up to ten or even fourteen meters wide, two or even three meters high, and run a stretch of sixty kilometers when hunted in a drive. The stag has a truly amazing running capacity, which predestined him as prime mover in the animistic world view of Lascaux. And he lent his power and stamina specifically to the horse
CER KOS CER S *kers- 'run' *hursa horse
Consider also the phonetical proximity of Hirsch *hursa, Hirsch the German stag, and of *hursa, the Proto-Germanic form of English horse.
Eyeteeth of stags, often incised, had been widespread pendants in the Magdalenian era, perhaps worn as amulets imploring walking and running power and stamina for a human being from the Divine Stag? also many years, a long life from the Lord of Time?
cosmology of Lascaux 3/3 (Divine Hind or Hind Woman)
The Divine Hind called life into existence, in the Altamira cave also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. The largest animal painted in the Altamira cave is a three meters long beautiful hind, licking the horns of a small bison under her hind1.JPG Two stags witth oversized antlers (and perhaps a few more almost faded ones) face the white bull of the full moon and the red mare of the midsummer sun rising above the horizon of the ledge in the rotunda of Lascaux, above (or among) them a hind, stretching her head and neck forward in an expressive manner: while the stags guard the midsummer exit from the Underworld, the hind calls the full moon and midsummer sun to come forth and climb the sky ...
Marie E.P. Knig identified the niche at the rear end of the Axial Gallery as midwinter, the line of descending horses as the tired winter sun horse, and the pair of antithetic ibices (in other parts of the world also opposing mountain goats) as emblem of the winter solstice. The arcs of their horns and heads form an 'hourglass' like this )( evoking the constellation of the Divine Hind Woman, Orion, the dominant winter constellation, across the sky from the summer constellations we know as Sagittarius and Scorpio, seen by then as antlers of the Divine or Cosmic Stag CER KOS, stag (hind shaman shamaness) CER heavenly vault KOS.
Under the 'hourglass' appears a square with an incomplete subdivision into 3 by 3 smaller squares: the fields of the bottom line that mark winter in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, periods d e f in the following pattern
h i b
g a c
f e d
Syncopic square a-i 365 days, cross of syncopic squares a b d f h 41 days each, remaining fields c e g i 40 days each / midsummer June 21 beginning of period a / midwinter December 21 practically in the middle of period e
a 41 days from New Year, midsummer, June 21, till July 31
b 41 days August 1 till September 10
c 40 days September 11 till October 20
d 41 days October 21 till November 30
e 40 days December 1 till January 9 midwinter practically in the middle
f 41 days January 10 till February 19
g 40 days February 20 till March 31
h 41 days April 1 till May 11
i 40 days May 12 till June 20
Eight subsequent periods correspond to eleven lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode or in the less accurate 20 30 29 mode (as explained in the previous message).
The Divine Hind was CER -: I -: or CER LIL (pronounce the lip lick -: by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue). Among the derivatives are Hera, also Northwest PIE *kerdeh- 'herd-series', while -: I -: alone accounts for a call of Celtic herdsmen to their cattle that survives in the locally famous lyoba call of herdsmen in the Swiss Canton of Fribourg, then for German Leben English live, German Liebe English love, Ugaritic dd 'loved by' and Phoenician Dido 'Beloved One', Latin libido 'desire', Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', French Lily and the flower lily, also German Laube 'foliage' and English lobby, German Laube 'arbor', the latter suggesting an arbor in honor of the Hind Woman appearing in Orion, a midwinter bowary in honor of the Lady of Life. Her arbor would have been made with fir twigs, as indicated by Altamira bulls: while some (or even most ?) of them have regular tails in the form of 'paint brushes', others have tails in the form of 'fir twiglets'. Apparently the Divine Hind called not only animals out of niches and clefts in the rock but also made plants germinate and grow.
Basque zaldi 'horse' (a shifting compound)
Basque zaldi 'horse' might have turned a sounding river into a load-bearing river then a load-bearing horse. Proto-Basque *sal-dun (long u) 'packhorse, literally load-bearing' inspires the Magdalenian reading SAL TON for a river that runs through the watery ground SAL of a valley or plain and makes itself heard TON as murmuring brook rushing river thundering waterfall, then referred to a load-bearing river, and then made a leap to load-bearing horses.
400,000 years ago, Homo erectus traversed the Wallace Strait, Indonesia, a deep sea drift valley never less than seventeen kilometers wide, on bamboo rafts. In Celtic times the River Seine was a busy trade route for rafts and boats transporting commodities – a load-bearing waterway.
SAL for the watery ground of a valley or plain named rivers like the Sihl and Zihl/Thielle in Switzerland, and Saale in Germany. Pliny, in his Natural History, mentions that in a region of Spain horses were called Thielodones. Ancient Hispanic has t(h)ieldo 'horse', Ibero-Latin cieldo, and finally Basque zaldi
SAL Saale Sihl Zihl/Thielle Thielo- t(h)iel- ciel- zal-
Magdalenian REO meaning river named the Greek fertility goddess Rhea, Minoan Rheia, in the light of Magdalenian a river goddess who made a valley fertile. She named rivers like the ancient Rha modern Volga, then three rivers that spring in the Swiss Alps, not far from each other: Rhenus Rhine, Rhodanus Rhne, and Reuss. Rhea was the mother of Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades. Her Gallo-Roman alter ego had been the horse goddess Epona who rode a horse in lady fashion, accompanied by a bird evoking the eagle of Zeus, by a foal evoking the horse of Poseidon, and by a dog evoking the dog of Hades. Her main sanctuary was Alesia near one of the springs of the River Seine.
Poseidon was originally a river god, PAD AD DA Doric Poteidas, PAS TON Greek Poseidon: he and his horses move PAD (activity of feet) along rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains, and everywhere PAS they come to, they make themselves heard TON – rushing water braying horses, thundering waterfalls thundering hooves of a running herd of horses, their bobbing heads undulating like waves ... Poseidon himself could turn into a stallion. A gold ring from Mokhlos, Minoan Crete, shows a boat on a river with the bow in the shape of a horse's head and neck.
TON became -don in Poseidon, named rivers like the Don and Donau/Danube, and accounts for Proto-Indo-European *dhen- 'run, flow' – horses run, water flows. A further derivative of TON would have been Proto-Basque *dun (long u) 'load', first a load carried by a river, then a load carried by a horse.
Living near a river, trading all kinds of goods on rafts and in boats, then working with packhorses, allowed an easy transition form the sounding river to the load-bearing river to load-bearing horses. We have then
SAL for the watery ground of a valley
rivers like Saale Sihl Zihl/Thielle
Proto-Basque *sal 'load'
first carried by a river, then by horses
TON for to make oneself heard
rivers like Don Donau/Danube
murmuring rushing thundering
PIE *dhen- 'run, flow'
Proto-Basque *dun (long u) 'bearing'
first a river then a horse bearing a load
By the way, Basque espa-ra 'horsefly' is akin to Avestan aspa 'horse', from AS PAC, upward AS horse PAC, originally small and sturdy pony-like horses used for transporting loads up the slope of a hill or a mountain.
PIE horse (making the test case more specific)
Allan R. Bomhard reconstructed a Proto-Nostratic verbal root I can't render properly: *?ekh- 'to move quickly, to rage; to be furious, raging, violent, spirited, fiery, wild' (the sign I give as question mark is a glottal stop, maybe H1, and the final h should be tiny, in elevated position). This word has plenty derivatives in Altaic languages, Tungus, Mongolian, Turkic, even Japanese, and some of them imply the horse, especially the behaving of stallions (google for: bomhard nostratic horse ).
In the light of Magdalenian, the above Proto-Nostratic root might be a lateral association to PAC meaning horse. PAC is present in AS PAC Avestan aspa Sanskrit asva (and many more derivatives), upward AS horse PAC, small pony-like horses used for transporting loads up the slope of a hill or mountain – PAC packhorses. Emphatic PAC AS AS horse up up named the winged horse Pegasos Pegasus, originally personifying the hot summer wind that blows from the Aral Sea along the Amu Darya then up to the Hindukush, as emblem of poetry testifying to an oral epic from the first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan T'upe. Later on this region became Bactria, a fertile province in the empire of Dareios then Alexander, rich in horses, Bak- reminding of PAC for horse.
The oldest layers of Greek mythology would originally have told stories from Central Asia that were later on dislocated to the Greek mainland. (Originally the GRA KOS Graikos Graikoi Greeks and KAL EN Hellenes were miner tribes from Central Asia, laboring in 'decorated' caves GRA where colorful and glittering ores evoked the impression of a heavenly vault KOS inside the mountain, inside EN the Underworld KAL.)
Now the test case regarding the Indo-European horse can be made more specific. Proto-Nostratic *?ekh- (simplified notation) accounts for both Proto-Altaic *ek'a (simp.not.) and Proto-Indo-European *ek-u-s *ekuo-s (simp.not.) 'horse'.
Magdalenian PAC meaning horse had a lateral association in *?ekh- (simp.not.) and named the horse of the first Indo-European homeland in AS PAC aspa asva (and so on), while AC PAS dubbed the horse of the second and third IE homelands in the Uralic and Pontic steppes east and west of the ancient Rha modern Volga respectively: expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS – riding a horse you can get everywhere PAS in the Eurasian steppes (on earth) AC ... Hypothetical AC PAS would have accounted for *h1ekwos (version given by Mallory and Adams 2006), Greek hippos, Latin equus, also for the name of the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona, for Finnish hevonen 'horse' (and many more).
Laws of Magdalenian, from the spring of 2005 (1, 2) and spring of 2006 (3, 4) partly anticipated by Richard Fester
1) inverse forms have related meanings
2) permutations yield words around the same meme
3) D-words have comparative forms in S-words
4) important words can have lateral associations
The inverse of PAC for horse is CAP for to capture horses. CAP might perhaps have named Kabura Kabul. The stone miners on the Hindukush needed horses for transporting lapis lazuli and mainly the very hard gray-green stone from which blades of axes were made still in the Early Bronze Age that began in the first Indo-European homeland at the southern base of the Alai Mountains wherein copper and tin were associated in the same mines, their alloy yielding bronze, and bronze bites made it possible to tame and finally domesticate horses, by then a wild creature, especially the stallion, well described by the meanings of the Proto-Nostratic verbal root proposed by Allan R. Bomhard.
IE horse sacrifice (inauguration of a king)
The horse was the Indo-European animal par excellence. Taming not only docile mares but also wild stallions was a big achievement. It may explain to some degree the strange inauguration ceremony of a king. First he mated a mare in a symbolic way (as we shall see a high priestess of a mare goddess). Hereupon a stallion was sacrificed, dismembered, and the meat offered to various deities. A scholar (whose name I donĠt remember) found that each leg of a horse had a different name. From this we can conclude that the legs were consecrated to four deities. Apparently the new king hoped to gain the prowess of a stud (by symbolically mating a mare) and the approval of the gods (by distributing the meat among them).
PAC meaning horse would have accounted for Proto-Indo-European *hbhag- 'apportion' via the sharing of the horse-meat. Bagaios was a byname of the Phrygian Zeus. He may have watched over the distribution of the various parts of the sacrificed stallion. A Vedic god who deified Sanskrit bagha- 'apportion' would have done the same. An Iranian cognate of Avestan baga 'good fortune' was borrowed into Slavic and became a word for god, bogu, Russian bog. Tocharian B pake retains a meaning of share and is close to Magdalenian PAC for a horse. (Main IE source Mallory and Adams 2006).
A fair distribution of the various parts of the sacrificed stallion to the gods in a symbolical form, and actually among the assembled priests and ministers would have meant good fortune (Avestan baga) and been a sign that the freshly appointed king was a worthy governor in the name of the heavenly distributor (Zeus Bagaios). In that sense the strange inauguration ceremony would have been of a social relevance.
The Sanskrit word for the Indic inauguration ceremony, asvamedha, contains asva 'horse' which is close to Avestan aspa 'horse', from AS PAC, upward AS horse PAC, small pony-like horses used for transporting loads up a hill or mountain slope. This would have been the horse of the first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, centered in the triangle Termez – Kunduz – Kurgan T'upe.
Now let us have a look at the names of Termez and Kunduz.
TYR means to overcome in the double sense of rule and give. The king was an overcomer who not only ruled but also gave, and was expected to fairly distribute what he gave. He was considered and considered himself the offspring MmOS of the heavenly overcomer TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus). Derivatives of TYR abound in Central Asia. The king as TYR MmOS might have named Termez on the middle course of the Amu Darya, between the steep mountains of the Pamir and the arid plain of the Aral Sea.
If the names Termez and Kunduz go back to the Bronze Age, the latter may originally have been called GYN DhAG, woman GYN able DhAG. Who was the able woman? If we can rely on Czech kun 'horse' a high priestess of a horse goddess (maybe an emanation of Rhea who had an alter ego in the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona). When a king was inaugurated, he would have performed a symbolic union with that high priestess, and then she would have helped him distribute the meat of the sacrificed stallion. Is it a coincidence that a town above Kunduz – farther up the slope of the Hindukush – is called Baghlan? Remember Sanskrit bagha-. Place names can be amazingly conservative. Landscapes have a long memory.
wild or domesticated? (historical depth of field)
Was the Proto-Indo-European horse *h1ekwos a wild or domesticated animal? Wild horses were an important source of food in the Eurasian steppes. A mass horse tomb in the Ukraine contained some three thousand skeletons, but only a very few of domesticated horses, all others of wild horses that had been hunted for meat.
Magdalenian PAC named a wild horse, PEC a smaller animal, for example an ibex. PAC and PEC account for *pekw- (tiny w in elevated position) 'cook, bake', Sanskrit pacati 'cooks' – the meat was roasted on a fire, cooked in water, or baked in a pie.
PAC would have named the wild horse hunted for meat. Some 6,500 years ago, horses would have been tamed in the first Indo-European homeland, maybe in the region of Kunduz, on the northern slope of the Hindukush. The tamed horse would have been called AS PAC, upward AS horse PAC, small and sturdy pony-like horses used for transporting loads up a hill or mountain, close derivatives being Avestan aspa Sanskrit asva.
The horse of the second IE homeland in the Uralic steppes east of the ancient Rha modern Volga, and the horse of the third IE homeland in the Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga, would have been dubbed by a phonetically similar but semantically different compound: AC PAS, an expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS - riding a horse you can get everywhere PAS on earth AC, in the Eurasian steppes (PR slogan of an early horse breeder ;-) Among the derivatives are *h1ekwos, Greek hippos, Latin equus, the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona, and the Finnish horse hevonen.
PAC wild horse, hunted for meat
AS PAC tamed horse, used as pack animal
AC PAS domesticated horse, used for riding or pulling a wagon
The distinction between AS PAC and AC PAS would have held in the beginning; later on all horses were used for carrying loads, pulling a cart or wagon, tow a boat along a river, plough a field, and for riding. In that sense the convergence of AS PAC and AC PAS in *h1ekwos can be justified. Only that the historical depth of field is lost.
What about Uzbekistan, Buchara, Bekabad -- AS PAC Uzbek-, PAC AAR RAABuchara, PAC Bek- ???
Bactra-Zariaspa and Pakistan (more toponyms)
Bactria was a far eastern province in the empire of Dareios and then of Alexander, fertile, rich in horses. Bac- reminds of PAC meaning horse. The capital of Bactria in the time of Alexander was Baktra-Zariaspa (329/327 BC), across the Amu Darya (Oxus) from Termez. A leader TYR who overcame in the double sense of rule and give and saw himself as offspring MmOS of the heavenly overcomer TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus) may have named TYR MmOS Termez. TYR may also have accounted for Zar- in Zariaspa, while -aspa derives from AS PAC for a horse PAC that carries a load upward AS a hill or mountain slope, Avestan aspa Sanskrit asva. So we have TYR AS PAC Zariaspa, region of those who overcame TYR a wild horse PAC and turned it into a packhorse AS PAC aspa asva.
The etymology of the name Uzbekistan is uncertain. The favorite Sogdian reading of Uzbek is 'genuine master'. This might perhaps preserve the meaning of TYR AS PAC Zariaspa in the rump form of (TYR) AS PAC Uzbek via a pair of lateral associations: one to AS for genuine, and one to PAC for master. Genesis 10 in the Bible mentions Tiras, possibly the Indo-Europeans on the banks of the Amu Darya ruled by an overcomer TYR in the name of the heavenly overcomer TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus) up above AS in the sky – the genuine overcomer, while he who succeeded in taming and handling the wild horse PAC was called a master.
Bukhara became another Bactra in the time of Alexander (329/27 BC). Near it, on the Amu Darya (Oxus) was a place called Bagai.
Bactrians also lived in the Northern Indus Valley. On the way to the Indus can be found a place called Peukaleotis, the region Bukephala named in honor of Boukephalos, favorite horse of Alexander, and on the two eastern rivers of the Indus water system the kingdom of one Phegeus.
Pakistan was named by an acronym: Punjab Afghanistan Kashmir Iran Sind baluchisTAN – PAKISTAN ÔLand of the PureĠ (Persian and Urdu pak ÔpureĠ). How are Afghanistan and Iran parts of Pakistan? More logical is Pak- as reference to ancient Bactria, expanded into the Indus Valley under Dareios and Alexander. Bactrians took over at least the northern half of the wide river valley. Pak ÔpureĠ might ultimately go back to horse sacrifices, not only in the Eurasian steppes but also on the Indian subcontinent, if we imagine the gods having asked for thoroughbreds, for pure blood. Pakistan ÔLand of the PureĠ would then overform a piece of pagan history, justified by a not very convincing acronym. (What if also English pagan derives from PAC meaning horse? Latin paganus ÔruralĠ may be read as: where they plough the land with horses and oxen, PAC horse, PEC pecus ÔcattleĠ. Horse sacrifices were practiced for a long time as part of the Indic inauguration ceremony asvamedha, of the Roman Equus October, and of the medieval inauguration of an Irish king in County Donegal.)
Derivatives of TYR abound in Central Asia, and so do derivatives of PAC. Phegeus may be akin to Ancient Greek pheggo 'shining, brilliant' and could provide a confirmation of hypothetical PAC AAR RAA as origin of Bukhara. Imagine a herd of horses PAC trotting along the top of a hill, early in the morning, in a fresh breeze, AAR meaning air, and in the golden light RAA of the rising sun ... Such a picture might once have inspired the idea of a sun horse, and of Helios drawn by a quadriga of horses. PAC may then also account for pheggos, while Phegeus may have seen himself as a sun king.
PIE and Nostratic identified a lot of word twigs on the language tree, but often they can't see the branches on which those twigs grow. Such a missing word branch is PAC meaning horse. The amazing concentration of derivatives of PAC in Central Asia tells me that the horse was tamed in that region, by the first Indo-Europeans led by an overcomer TYR who ruled in the name of the heavenly overcomer TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus) up above AS in the sky, TYR AS accounting for Tiras in the Bible (Genesis 10). TYR means to overcome in the double sense of rule and give, and a king was expected to fairly distribute what he gave, in the way of Zeus Bagaios.
Word branches allow scenic reconstructions, and reconstructions in the form of a story. PIE and Nostratic revealed such a treasure that we now can proceed to the next level in studying the language tree and evolution of the mind.
Hindukush Kashmir Pamir (how to get behind overformings)
Horses were bred in a wide arc around the Hindukush (etymology uncertain), in my opinion from AD DA KOS, origin of many rivers that flow toward AD lakes and seas while coming from DA this high mountain range under the heavenly vault KOS. One of those rivers contributes to the AD DA Indus, AD DA a generic river name.
We have seen before that rivers and horses were connected. REO meaning river named the ancient Rha modern Volga, and three rivers that spring near each other in the Swiss Alps: Rhenus Rhine, Reuss, Rhodanus Rhne. REO also named the Minoan goddess Rheia and the Greek goddess Rhea, mother of Zeus and Poseidon and Hades. Rhea had an alter ego in the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona who rode a horse in lady fashion, accompanied by a bird and foal and dog that evoke the eagle of Zeus and horse of Poseidon and dog of Hades. The main sanctuary of Epona was Alesia at the base of Mont Ra, near one of the sacred springs of the River Seine. REO also named the horse goddess Rhiannon of Wales.
AMA REO KOS, mother AMA river REO heavenly vault KOS, may account for Proto-Indo-European *markos 'horse' attested in Celtic and Germanic, Old Irish marc 'horse' and English mare, connected by some with Mongolian morin. The compound might have named the metaphorical mother AMA of rivers REO and provider of horses under the heavenly vault KOS, while a permutation thereof could have named Kashmir (etymology uncertain, may have to do with water)
KOS AMA REO KOSh MA RE KASh Mi R ?
The highest peak of the Hindukush, Tirach Mir, may then be read as TYR.AC AMA.REO, the overcomer TYR overlooks a wide expanse of land with water AC, the land of the metaphorical mother AMA of rivers REO, as Rhea the mother of TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus. And Pamir? might once have been called PAC AMA REO, horses PAC provided by the metaphorical mother AMA of rivers REO, horses tamed on the middle course of the Amu Darya that comes rushing down from the Pamir, AMA Amu TYR Darya, REO Rhea the mother goddess of the first Indo-European homeland ruled by the worshipper of TYR up above AS (in the sky or on a mountain top), Tiras in the Bible, Genesis 10 (also the etymology of Pamir is uncertain, one assumption is a geological term that may, however, have been derived from the formation of the Pamir).
Overformings block the comparative method, while the scenic reconstructions of Magdalenian – if valid – make them transparent or even dissolve them, allowing a direct access to the original meaning of a name or place name
an early Finnish calendar (part 1/2)
AAR RAA NOS was the sky god of the Gbekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS of his own, visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring ouranos.JPG AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos, the old sky god Varuna of the Indus Valley, and named the Val d'Aran, Arundel, or the Val d'Hrens in the Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills or mountain filled with air and light ...
AAR RAA NOS in the variant of AAR RAA CA, he of air and light in the sky CA, named the heavenly patron of Uruk in Sumer, and the Horus falcon of Ancient Egypt, in the version of AAR RAA AC, he of air and light on earth AC Horakhty, Horus on the horizon, his hieroglyph the solar disc in the valley between a pair of hills.
The eyes of the Horus falcon were sun and moon. AAR RAA CA may also have accounted for the Finnish sun aurinka, and via the rump form (AAR RAA) CA for the Finnish moon kuu, while kuutone 'six' and kuudes 'sixth' inspire a lunisolar calendar based on the division of a lunation or synodic month into six periods, and the combination of the 'lunar' number five and the 'solar' number six that are symbolically 'married' in the number 30
young moon a lunar week of five days
waxing moon a lunar week of five days
full moon a lunar week of five days
waning moon a lunar week of five days
old moon a lunar week of five days
empty moon alternately five and four days
yielding lunations of 30 29 30 ... days
A long lunation of 30 days are six lunar weeks and equal a month of five solar weeks, maybe symbolizing a mythological marriage between a moon goddess and a sun god.
Now for the lunisolar aspect of this calendar. A year has 12 months plus a lunar week and occasionally a solar week. 5 5 5 sum 15 lunations counted in the 30 29 30 mode yield 443 days, 6 5 6 or 17 lunations counted in the same mode 502 days, together 985 days for 32 lunations, doubled 1,890 days for 64 lunations. 1,890 days are 315 solar weeks and correspond to 64 lunations or synodic months (lunisolar formula of the Gbekli Tepe that was also applied in the Horus calendar of Ancient Egypt, where a month of 30 days multiplied by the Horus eye series 1 '2 '4 '8 '16 '32 '64 yields 29 '2 '32 days, or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, for a synodic month of 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds, modern average from 1989 AD; mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime).
Finnish viisi 'five' derives from PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. Tsaivas 'sky' named the heavenly abode of divine beings, notably the sun and moon, from DhAG meaning able, Greek theos Latin deus (incompatible in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian) English divine. And finally SOMm for human being, Greek soma 'body', could have named the Suomi.
an early Finnish calendar (part 2/2)
Let us play with the 'lunar' week of 5 days and 'solar' week of 6 days in the hypothetical early Finnish calendar.
6 x 5 or 30 days for a long lunation
6 6 5 6 6 or 29 days for a short lunation
5 x 6 days for a month
Finnish kuukausi 'month' containing kuu 'moon' testifies to the priority of the lunar calendar.
5 10 15 20 25 30 ... 360 365 days for a regular year (r)
6 12 18 24 30 ... 360 366 days for an occasional leap year (l)
25 years require 6 leap years among them, here in a symmetric arrangement
r r l r r r l r r r l r r r l r r r l r r r l r r
This excellent formula can be found by means of an additive number sequence. Begin with 365 days for one year and add repeatedly 1461 days for four years (in the way that was forbidden in school ;-)
365/1 (plus 1461/4) 1826/5 3287/9 4748/13 6209/17 7670/21 9131/25 (19 x 365 plus 6 x 366)
The same value might have been known to the astronomers of Tell Halaf in Syria nine millennia ago (possibly encoded in a beautiful bowl).
Consider again the symmetric line of 25 years. This time one leap year (l) is marked by an upper case L
r r l r r r l r r r l r r r l r r r L r r r l r r
19 years denoted by L are 6,940 days (fourteen regular years plus 5 leap years) or 1,388 lunar weeks or 235 lunations. The so-called Metonic cycle (235/19) is provided by another lunisolar sequence. Begin with 12 12 13 sum 37 lunations for 3 years (known from a Celtic calendar) and 99 lunations for 8 years (Lascaux, dingir calendar of Sumer) and add the numbers pairwise (again in the 'forbidden' way)
37/3 99/8 136/11 235/19 371/30
This lunisolar sequence was used by the Minoans a thousand years before Meton (Knossos 235/19, Mallia 371/30), and probably still earlier in Mesopotamia, and, why not, in Finland.
sun horse and moon bull running (Lascaux)
Marie E.P. Knig identified the bull of Lascaux as moon bull, the horse as sun horse, the niche at the rear end of the Axial Gallery as midwinter, the pair of antithetic ibices as emblem of the winter solstice, and the line of descending small black horses as the tired winter sun horse.
The winter sun horse would have been called CA LAB, sky CA cold LAB, accounting for gallop and German Klepper '(old) nag'. The lovely pair of 'Chinese' horses running from the niche to the rotunda is the spring sun horse CA BEL, in a longer form CA BEL IAS, sky CA warm BEL healing IAS, the warm sun healing ailments of a long and harsh winter, ABelios AFelios Helios the Greek sun god with a quadriga of horses. The rotunda symbolizes midsummer, the red mare rising above the ledge the midsummer sun rising above the horizon, CA BAL, sky CA hot BAL, Latin caballus (etymology not interpreted, says my dictionary) Spanish caballo French cheval.
The proud white bull running by her side represents a full moon occurring at the same time, ideal start of an eight-year period in the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux. Ideograms marking the bulls of the rotunda suggest six lunar phases: 3 days of the young moon, 6 days of the waxing moon, 9 days of the full moon, 6 days of the waning moon, 3 days of the old moon, alternately 3 and 2 days of the empty moon German Leermond, yielding lunations of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. The six lunar phases would have been named by the permutations of GEN, the three days of the young moon by GEN itself, genesis, the three days of the old moon by the inverse NEG, negation.
A compound parallel to CA BAL named the full moon CA LUN, sky CA of the full round form LUN (the inverse NUL accounting for Latin nihil 'nothing' French nul 'no, none' English nul and German Null 'zero'). CA LUN became the Greek moon goddess Selaenae and the Roman moon goddess Luna and accounts for glina 'moon' in the language of the eastern Swiss Alps, Rumantg, CA preserved in the initial g- of glina.
Now hear the sun horse and the bull of the full moon run
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
CA LUN CA LUN CA LUN CA LUN ...
cosmic horse and wheel of spacetime (a fable based on Hungarian)
The sky god AAR RAA NOS of the Gbekli Tepe, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS (of his own) had the say ) or L. AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L named the Aral Sea, the Uralic steppes of the second Indo-European homeland, the Ural, and accounts for Hungarian ural 'rule'. AAR RAA is present in Greek hora and Latin hora, time words of many meanings, also in German Uhr Hungarian ora 'clock, watch'. AAR RAA again accounts for Latin aura also aurum 'gold' and for Hungarian arany 'gold'.
Hungarian is an Uralic language. Consulting a small Hungarian dictionary inspired a fable around a possible myth from the Nation of Towns in the Transural, a concentration of circular miner settlements from the Bronze Age.
In the beginning the Divine Stag and Hind CER made the cosmic wheel of space and time, Hungarian kr 'circle' kereh 'round' kerk 'wheel' kering 'circulate' kerit 'fence in, encircling', and made it according to the PAS cross, kereszt 'cross', PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, here associated with the positions of the hours on the dial of a mechanical watch that goes back to the ideal calendar sanctuary of the Gbekli Tepe
center, here, now
North, midwinter, December, position 12/0 on a dial
East, spring or vernal equinox, March, position 3 on a dial
South, midsummer, June, position 6 on a dial
West, autumn equinox, September, position 9 on a dial
By turning the PAS wheel or cross you obtain the positions 1 4 7 10 for January April July October, then 2 5 8 11 for February May August November. The cosmic wheel of spacetime was represented by a circle of a dozen poles (ideal Gbekli Tepe calendar model) and integrated into the enveloping palisade or wall LOP of a circular settlement POL, the small circle of a settlement standing for the big circle of the world.
Now the Divine Hind called a horse PAC into life, and the Divine Stag made it run run run around the world, along the cosmic loop LOP, toward AD one 'monthplace' while coming from DA the previous one. AD DA was a generic
river name but here it may have accounted for Hungarian id (long ) 'time', and LOP PAC for Hungarian lo 'horse' lovak 'horses'.
AC PAS named the horse of the second Indo-European homeland in the Uralic steppes that carries a rider everywhere PAS on earth AC, but would also have named the cosmic horse running around the earth AC along the PAS wheel of the turning PAS cross, Hungarian kerek 'wheel' kereszt 'cross'. AC PAS accounts for *h1ekwos hippos equus Epona hevonen, and possibly also for Hungarian havi havonkent havonti 'monthly' ...
The Indo-Europeans in the Uralic steppes were an elite whose language left only a few traces in the Uralic languages, moreover, Magdalenian words were lost, for example PAS, or they shifted, are hidden and require a scenic reading, for example CER meaning stag or hind, shaman or shamaness. This word has a direct derivative in Hungarian szarvas 'stag' but also shifted to the above host of ker-words and may suggest that the wheel kerkk was invented by shamans in the Uralic steppes, then enlarged to the cosmic wheel of spacetime.
Hungarian moon and sun (and the Finnish counterparts)
A longer version of AAR RAA NOS for the sky god of the Gbekli Tepe, visualized ex negativo by the big limestone ring, also AAR RAA ) or AAR RAA L for the one who has the say, might have been
AAR RAA CA NOS LOP (AAR raa CA nos LOP)
he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA with a mind NOS follows his orbit LOP (originally a palisade or wall around a settlement, accounting for envelop, loop, and German Loipe 'circuit'). Consider the Egyptian AAR RAA CA Horus falcon whose eyes were moon and sun. Both moon and sun traveled along the swaying kha channel, identified with the band of the ecliptic by Rolf Krauss. RAA alone named Ra, the supreme god appearing in the solar disc. The Egyptian deities were believed to have been made from metals, Ra from gold, "a mountain of gold." Remember AAR RAA NOS Hungarian arany 'gold'.
CA NOS in the long name above would have accounted for Greek Chaos, father of AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Uranus, also for Proto-Uralic *kanu (kangu) 'moon' wherefrom Finnish kuu 'moon' and Hungarian hold 'moon' (quite a phonetical shift). AAR RAA CA again would have named the Finnish aurinko 'sun' while NOS LOP may be the origin of of Hungarian nap 'sun', a word which defied etymology until now
NOS LOP NO OP Na aP nap
German Aar, Knig der Lfte, is an old word for 'eagle, king of the airs (plural)'. Remember the Val d'Aran, Arundel, or the Val d'Hrens in the Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hill or mountains filled with air and light, a mountain valley the kingdom of an Aar ...
The eyes of AAR RAA NOS are depicted on a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar, Northwestern Syria, close to the Euphrates and Anatolian border, 10th millennium BC (between 12,000 and 11,000 years old). In my opinion it shows how the Gbekli Tepe was built. One side features plenty fur or leather bags filled with clay; in the center of the top row a wide pair of horns that invoke the bull emanation of the sky god, between the horns the big hill: a limestone outcrop some four hundred meters across, covered by humans with earth layers up to five meters deep, which required maybe two million fillings of leather bags – a pharaonic enterprise undertaken some 12,000 years ago. The people carrying bags upward to the top of the hill must have looked like a procession of ants ... tablets.GIF On the other side we see a temple under construction, four standing pillars, a worker ant erecting a further pillar, above a pair of rings in the sky, moon and sun, eyes of the sky god, the ring on the right side emitting a ray, next to the ring on the left side a snake heading downward, symbol of rain. Snakes are by far the most frequent element in the Gbekli Tepe iconography. Snakes heading upward symbolize prayers for rain, and the rising smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain from the sky god, snakes heading downward falling rain, and snakes undulating horizontally rivers, also water used for the irrigation of fields, running through channels. AAR RAA NOS in that sense, provider of rain, accounts for Latin urina 'actually water' and in the form of Varuna for Sanskrit var(i) 'water'. The first stone pillar temples were built 11,600 years ago. The region was fertile, a paradise of lush meadows, groves, and game galore. However, being on the southern margin of the Fertile Crescent, water became an issue with agriculture invented in that region.
The culture of the Neolithic I spread in all directions, making the name of the old sky god reach Egypt in the South and Finland in the North, the Indus Valley and Ural in the East and Europe in the West.
magic spell (enforcing a wall)
POL named a fortified settlement, Greek polis, German Bollwerk English bulwark, also Italian villa 'mansion', French and English village (pronounced differently), French ville 'town', Hungarian falu 'village'. Inverse LOP named the enveloping hedge, fence, palisade or wall. POL LOP Peloponnese was a region of fortified settlements POL enclosed in palisades or walls LOP, and PAS LOP Penelope the Homeric personification of the Peloponnese and especially the Argolis, everywhere PAS enveloping palisades or walls LOP. A so-called cyclopic wall surrounded a fortified settlement of the Bronze Age whose organization was denoted by the compound CO OC LOP, in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO surrounded by guards of the open eyes OC along the palisade or wall LOP. Derivatives of LOP reveal a metaphorical use of the word: Greek lopos 'shell skin husk, bark rind', French enveloper English envelop, English loop and looping, lap in the sense of a 'circuit round', German Loipe 'circuit' Lauf 'run, race' laufen 'to run, race' Laufbahn 'career' Umlaufbahn 'orbit' Schlaufe 'loop'. POL took over LOP in palisade and wall, while POL and LOP are exchanged in Hungarian telep 'settlement' and fal 'wall'.
The wall around a fortified settlement of the Bronze Age brings back the horse.
When Achilles gained victory over towering Hector, he dragged him three times around the walls of Troy with his horse-pulled cart – a ghastly act for which Eberhard Zangger found a plausible explanation: Achilles broke a magic spell that enforced the mighty walls of Troy.
We have archaeological evidence for such a wall-enforcing magic spell in the Tiryns side or disc of the Phaistos Disc (deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth) which is a perfect illustration of the CO OC LOP idea, representing Tiryns in the Middle Helladic period of time, around 1 650 BC, the margin the former palisade around the limestone hill, and the inscription all along the margin a quadruple banning formula of archaic power. CO OC LOP named the English wheel and Sanskrit chakra via *kwekwlos, while the Hungarian wheel kerk informs us that it was invented by a shaman CER.
Now remember the wheel-shaped miner settlements in the Nation of Towns in the Transural. Imagine a shaman riding or wheeling around such a town once a year, enforcing the palisade or wall with a magic spell. A myth could then have widened this ritual to an idea of the cosmos, the wheel of spacetime kept in motion by a cosmic horse, LOP PAC lo 'horse' lovak 'horses' lovas 'rider' lovag 'knight' in Hungarian. In the wake of Newton the cosmos became a clockwork, in our time it is understood as a computer, the world as hologram generated by the information stored in the 'lopos' of a huge sphere – the technology of an epoch shapes the idea of the cosmos, not only today, it also did so in the past.
Chauvet cave (origin of a wandering tale)
In the time of Chauvet fast moving Arcturus was the head of the constellation we know as Bootes 'Herdsman'. By then, more than 30,000 years ago, it may have been ARC TYR, overcomer TYR of the cave bear ARC, the cave bear (bigger than a grizzly) seen in the American Big Dipper, part of Ursa major 'big(ger) Bear'. The Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave shows a large domino five in red ocher applied with a palm which I read as PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), and a further palm impression in elevated position which I read as CA for sky, together PAS CA - may the supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, the bullman, be born again in the heavens, and may he roam the sky in his next life as he roams the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ... The bull(man) is shown on a stalactite in the rear hall of the Chauvet cave, his head before the womb of a Venus woman symbolizing a birth in the sky, her large black pubic triangle indicating the Summer Triangle Deneb – Vega – Atair on the Milky Way. The eminent PIE scholar and expert on the Rig Veda Michael Janda deduced a Stone Age belief in a rebirth somewhere on the Milky Way from the Rig Veda. The Chauvet cave might have been the stage for an opera showing the adventures of the bullman in the sky, beginning with the Summer Triangle, then proceeding to further constellations. Picture an actor / dancer / singer performing in the cave, torches casting his shadow on the walls, accompanied by drum beats and the piercing sounds of flutes made from delicate swan bones ...
This tall tale would have survived in the legend of Arthur of Britain who fought for three days and three nights with the dragon from Lannion in Brittany – skulls and bones of the long extinct cave bear were misunderstood as remains of dragons. The sky god AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Varuna in the alternative form of AAR RAA CA, he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA lived on for example in the 'golden boy' Muruku (Latin aurum 'gold' Finnish aurinka 'gold') identified by Asko Parpola on a tablet from the Indus Valley. In a lost oral epic (long before the Tamil epic) he would have been the bringer of civilization who also featured some elements of nature, for example the mythical rhinoceros drank up all the water of a river (Behemoth in the Bible) and thus caused a draught, nobody could cope with it, but then Muruku came, pulled the Spica lance (in the tale of Arthur the magic sword only he could get out of the rock) and pierced the hard skin of the swollen beast (Bootes again, with Arcturus for the head in bottom position) and thus released the first monsoon ... (a humoristic element in mythological cosmology).
The old tales were told and retold, filled with ever more elements, and finally almost entirely overgrown.
tentative etymologies of rasna 'Etruscan' and tamna 'horse' (polished compounds)
RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, has a derivative in Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector', a double derivative in German Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider', originally a riding archer, several derivatives in Etruscan, maby also in rasna by which the Etruscans called themselves. TYR means overcomer, inverse of RYT. And NOS means mind, Greek nous
RYT NOS Ras Na rasna 'Etruscan'
The Etruscans as riding archers with a mind of their own?
TYR NOS Tam Na tamna 'horse'
The horse as overcomer, leaping over obstacles, with a mind of its own = full of temperament? (The sun horse needed this vitality in climbing the sky, in traversing the Underworld, and in guiding a soul through the gate of the beyond.)
Latin tamnius 'wild vine' is a word of Etruscan origin
TYR NOS Tam NiuS tamnius 'wild vine'
The wild form of vitus vinifera, originating in the Mediterranean, reaching a climbing height of fifteen meters, as another overcomer with a metaphorical mind of its own?
(The shift from TYR to an m-form has a parallel in TYR PAS French temps 'weather and time' - TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus overcoming everybody everywhere PAS in weather and time. TYR PAS also named Taruwisa Troy as overcomer everywhere, controlling the entire region and the crossing trade ways.)
Where did the mythical or historical Tyrrhenus come from? Lydia, says Herodot, and he is right: both human and bovine Etruscan DNA indicate Lydia, especially the region of Smyrna modern Izmir. Tyrrhenus would have worshipped TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus), a son of REO (Rhea), while the Tyrsenoi worshipped TYRSANOS (mentioned on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens) or SATYRNOS (Saturnus Saturn, founder of the golden age of Latium), consider Etruscan Saturnia - the heavenly one overcomes TYR from above, in downward direction SA, and has a mind NOS of his own. Judging by a host of derivatives meaning tower, Tyrrhenius let build many towers (perhaps with a shrine of TYR inside). His people could have lived along the Hermos, between Sardes and Smyrna, Smyrna perhaps a strongly polished form of Saturnia (consider Edinburgh called Embra by the locals), and Sardes of TYR DhAG, the (heavenly) overcomer TYR is able DhAG. The proto-Etruscans would have been migrants from various minor peoples around the once mighty Hittite empire.
Hermos reminds of Hermes, alter ego of Homer in the Odyssey, Homer 2 from Smyrna. Hermes can be read as CER MmOS, offspring MmOS of the shaman CER, or of Cernunnos, lord of the animals, depicted on the silver cauldron from Gundestrup, Denmark, that was crafted by Galataean Celts in Anatolia. Cernunnos was closely connected with the supreme Celtic god Dagda, from DhAG DhAG able able. If we equate him with TYR, Hermos becomes TYR MmOS and then Turms, Etruscan for Hermes.
The proto-Etruscans in Lydia, dwelling along the Hermos, lived in huts, villages and fortified settlements POL made of wickerwork PLO, together POL PLO wherefrom Etruscan poplo Latin populus Italian popolo French people English people. Latin populus also names the poplar tree, indicating that the quickly growing vertical twigs of Populus niger were used as upshoots in wickerwork, while flexible willow twigs were used for the vertical elements, poplar trees and willows growing in meadows along rivers (German Auenwlder) also in Anatolia, at least by then.
Sardegna Sardinia (another Tyrrhenian colony ?)
Ancient Sardis modern Sardes on the ancient Hermos modern Gediz Nehr might have been the home of early kings known under the collective name of Tyrrhenus, worshipper(s) of the overcomer TYR (Sseyr Sseus Zeus), a son of REO (Rheia Rhea and maybe the alpine Rheitia in Switzerland). Those kings would have built a tower on the acropolis of Sardis, and this tower would later have named the place, capital of Lydia under Gyges
TYR DHAG the overcomer TYR is able DhAG
NOS RAG his mind NOS outstanding, towering RAG
with a pun, TYR meaning both the heavenly overcomer and the earthly king (cf. the Tiryns side of the Phaistos Disc as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth, and consider the former Round Building on the acropolis of Tiryns, a tower with a shrine of Sseyr, Middle Helladic form of Zeus).
As Leroy-Gourhan so convincingly demonstrated, the line of head and back of an animal in cave art, evoking the entire animal, was the first line drawn by a Stone Age painter. The name of that line would have been RAG (a permutation of GRA for a decorated cave, accounting for graphics), among the many derivatives Greek rakhos Old English ryc German Rcken 'back', German ragen 'to tower' berragen 'to tower above, be outstanding, brillant', Latin rex 'king' regina 'queen', Sanskrit raj 'king'. TYR DhAG would have become Sardis Sardes, TYR DhAG NOS Sardegna Sardinia, and NOS RAG noraghe (plural) for the towers on Sardegna Sardinia (Noraghen Culture).
This may indicate that several early kings from Sardis in Lydia sailed westward, formed colonies in Etruria and Sardinia, while a further Tyrrhenus may have reached the Swiss Alps where his people named three rivers that spring not far from each other, the Rhenus Rhine, Reuss, and Rhodanus Rhne. TYR Sseyr ... accounts for French Sieur Monsieur, English Sire Sir, German Herr, and Sursilvan Sara (one of the five Rumantg idioms). And what is the origin of Toscana Tuscany? Probably DhAG CA NOS, the able one DhAG in the sky CA has a mind NOS of his own. Replace the able one in the sky by the overcomer and you have TYR CA as origin of Turkey, while the TYR CA MAN Turkmenians carried out the will of the overcomer TYR in the sky CA with their right hand MAN, and the REO MAN Romani Romans the will of the river goddess REO (the early Roman kings were Etruscans), and the speakers of Rumantg the will of REO Rheia Rhea in her alpine emanation, REO DHAG Rheitia the able one who guides the riding archers RYT and make them overcome TYR in her name. A riding archer is shown among the rock carvings of Corschennas, above the confluence of the two Upper Rhines at Sils in the Domleschg; above the riding archer a majestic ring-cross, emblem of REO.
DhAG CA NOS Tuscania, and TYR CA NOS Tarquinia, are Etruscan towns in Southern Etruria. DhAG meaning able would also have named the boy Tages who appeared out of nowhere and founded the so-clled Etruscan disciplina of reading signs and messages and prophesies in the flight of birds, in the occurrence of flashes, and in pecularities of the liver of a sacrificed sheep. Can the 'disciplina' go back to TYR DhAG Sardis Sardes? did a swarm of birds flying westward advice Tyrrhenus to wander, ride and sail in the same direction, taking some of his people with him?
One of the most interesting Sardinian bronzes found in Etruscan graves is a richly decorated little ship with the bow of a stag (CER MmOS Hermes alias TYR MmOS Turms, the Etruscan Hermes), with a standing man and several animals, evoking an 'arch of Noah' (Vetulonia, Tomba del Duce).
Trossulum (a further horse formula ?)
A unit of 300 riding archers of the Roman cavalry was named trossuli, after the Etruscan town of Trossulum conquered by the Romans. The meaning of that name is unknown. If Trossulum was a center of horses and riders, the original name of that place – or an older center of horses and riders in Lydia, or even farther east – could have been
TYR RYT SAL LAS
the horse as overcomer TYR
ridden by an archer RYT
gets across the watery ground SAL of a valley
and over hills and mountains LAS
Remember RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, accounting for German Ross und Reiter 'horse and rider', and RYT TYR for Ritter 'knight', originally a riding archer.
Remember also TYR NOS tamna for the Etruscan horse, an overcomer TYR with a mind NOS of its own, full of vitality, needed by the sun horse for climbing the sky in the morning, and for traversing the Underworld by night. Horses were of high prestige for the Etruscan aristocrats, and may also have carried their souls (in a symbolic manner) to the beyond (Tomba del Barone, Tarquinia).
A peculiar element of Etruscan iconography are birds like a duck or a crane on the croup of a horse, interpreted as emblems of the Underworld. Water birds don't only fly and swim, they can also dive, and lakes must have been seen as entrances to the Underworld, as in Celtic mythology. The stamped metopes on a large pithos (vessel for storing big amounts of food) found in a tomb show a horse with a rider and a crane behind him on the croup of the horse, apparently on a journey through the Underworld to the beyond – a heavenly beyond reached on the wings of the crane that become wings of the horse.
Back to the hypothetical horse formula TYR RYT SAL LAS. The first half, TYR RYT, might have survived in Turkish tiris 'trot, gait of a horse between a walk and a run' (each i without a dot, pronounced like e in German laufen and in English father).
A postscript ending the long series of messages on words and compounds for the horse. The consent was that horses were first domesticated by the Yamnaya north of the Black Sea (the Pontic steppes, in my opinion, having been the third IE homeland). A new discovery indicates the Botai in Kazakhstan as the first horse tamers (the Uralic steppes having been the second IE homeland). Now I wait for another discovery that will make the Early Bronze Age dwellers on the middle course of the Amu Darya (first IE homeland) the tamers of small and sturdy pony-like horses used for carrying loads up a hill or mountain slope, and this before the Botai and Yamnaya tamed and domesticated their mutually different horses for the purpose of riding and pulling a wagon or a plough.