Lascaux 7 - life in the light of abilities / © 2014/15 Franz Gnaedinger
Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web / triangular definition of language / making sense of Homer / Magdalenian and modern understanding of the soul, animus atman pneuma spirit, origin of the gods, to love and work (our place in the world) / oscillations within the verbal morphospace, etymology of English fur (with a caveat), comment for beginners, genetics and word language / is mathematics a language? / Magdalenian revival (10 parts) / Ararat Masis Judi, Azzi Hayasa Armenia, land of Kar-da / Ebla in the wheat growing land of Minut founded a colony at Knossos ruled by Minos, Ur Ebla Knossos / Lascaux in the light of equal unequal (two parts) / Human Brain Project again (3 parts) / English fur (PIE logic and Magdalenian logic) / Magdalenian catechism / truth, analogies, and creativity (3 parts) / Hebrew palal 'pray' (2 parts) / communication and language / many ways of saying yes (2 parts) / Magdalenian grammar / Magdalenian formula of leading a good life (obligations balanced by rights and freedom) / many ways of saying yes (part 3) / dog and hound / etymologies of English soul and Greek psychae / shamanic soul formula / grammar of many grammars / Gothic saiwala 'soul' and saihwan 'see' / Phaistos Disc again (six parts) / a grammar of many grammars (continuation, 4 parts) verbal equations, a song line, painting the sky, soul and language --- the soul as intrapersonal and language as interpersonal coordinator of abilities / Chauvet cave again / evolutionary advantage of religion (early January 2015) --- may the insights gained by playing my hermeneutic muscle compensate for my limited English.
Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web
Magdalenian is an online experiment of soon ten years, a Usenet adventure, the Usenet being the Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web, but also a great opportunity for presenting, developing and evolving ideas. Every step of my experiment is documented in sci.lang, the more important messages gathered in long Magdalenian threads, and excerpts of them published on my website, as Lascaux pages
Lascaux, a lunisolar calendar
(early 2005 - early 2006)
what is etymology? (linguistics and biology)
subtitle Magdalenian words and compounds 2006/7
(January 23, 2006, till October 3, 2008)
Magdalenian experiment (continuation)
(October 7, 2008, till February 2011)
Magdalenian experiment (year seven)
(February 24, 2011, till September 12, 2011)
Magdalenian experiment (year seven, continuation)
subtitle Magdalenian experiment (year eight)
(September 13, 2011, till September 29, 2012)
Magdalenian adventure (year eight, continuation)
subtitle Magdalenian adventure (beginning of year nine)
(September 29, 2012 till February 23, 2014)
Magdaleian revival ... (2014)
Magdalenian would have been the lingua franca of the last Ice Age, preserved for a long time in shamanic double formulae. It relies on cave art and rock art and mobile art, works along time, favors or is favored by thematic complexes and story telling, and reveals how words branched, both phonetically and semantically.
Four laws of Magdalenia:
inverse forms have related meanings
permutations yield words around the same meme
D-words have comparative forms in S-words
important words can have lateral associations
A good four hundred words of rarely two and mostly three phonemes (letters, a few double letters, and two extra signs) mined along these laws in the spring of 2005 and mainly in the spring of 2006 allow for many compounds which are the pride and power of Magdalenian.
Test cases: bear as the furry one vs bear as the brown one; deus theos / Zeus vs deus Zeus / theos; words for horse; first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya, center the triangle of Termez and Kunduz and Kurgan-T'upe, second IE Homeland Uralic steppes east of the Rha Volga, third IE homeland Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga; long double formula naming the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age and Iron Age ...
The guiding idea of the following messages is life in the light of abilities, DhAG meaning able being the Magdalenian word of the most and most varied derivatives.
triangular definition of language
Probably the most important scientific flair is a feeling or sense for the complexity of a problem. It makes us look out for solutions of matching complexity patterns and narrows down the range of possible answers. We train it by looking and going in many directions. Machines can support but not replace it (computers won't really take over). I discovered that sense in primary school where it helped me solve mathematical exercises with a minimum of calculating. Then it guided me for half a century in piecing together my definition of language.
What is language?
Here my definition from 1974/75: Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another --- and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs.
Language, in my opinion, is a basic feature of life, and may be considered the intelligence of life: using language we achieve more than all on our own, or the same with less energy.
Language mirrors life. The more things we use, the more words we need.
Word language can be understood as a triangle whose corners are life with our needs and wishes; mathematics, logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula a = a; and art, human measure in a technical world, based on Goethe's world formula and ever turning key 'all is equal, all unequal ...'
Equations of the mathematical corner become symbols and metaphors in art , and the maintaining of a dynamic and productive balance in life.
Calendars, I believe, were the beginning of mathematics, joining the Earth on which we live and the sky above seen as canopy or ceiling or vault, making the world our home, the house of humankind, as it were.
Language, one might say, makes this house habitable. We lead uncertain lifes in an unstable world, yet owing to language that balances uncertainties we feel at home and save.
We ride logs in a mountain river, yet believe to sail peacefully across a lake. Language performs that miracle for us.
making sense of Homer
We read the Odyssey in school. I liked the Greek language and the colorful adventures of the hero, especially his dramatic arrival at the coast of the Phaeakians, followed by an idyllic morning in pleasant Scherie (end of book five, beginning of book six). But I never understood what the epic is about. Until Eberhard Zangger published his Atlantis book, wherein he identifies pleasant Scherie as an early Troy, and the arrival there as a time travel 'avant la lettre'. When Odysseus realizes where he is, and what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the natives, he can't help weeping ... This gives the epic a perspective. Maybe there is a story line we can follow? Could Polyphem be Troy VIIa seen through Achaean eyes? The one-eyed giant resembles more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread. So his eye might have been the acropolis overlooking the river plain? And all the strange places Odysseus encounters might again be Troy, Troy in disguise, blended with other places and periods of time? visited in a long series of dreams? A further major insight was the Homeric family of metals (Helen tin, Menelaos copper, Hermione bronze). By and by the epic made sense. Below a list of symbols and Magdalenian readings.
Polyphem -- Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa providing protected shelter for five to ten thousand people, vulnerable after the Hittite empire collapsed
his cave -- Trojan harbor in the Besik bay
his goats and sheep -- foreign ships waiting in the harbor for favorable wind, asked for high fees and tributes, tolls on their cargo
horses -- ships of the early Trojans (Phaeakians), and of the Achaeans who avoided the harbor in the Besik bay and instead maintained an improvised harbor in the mouthing area of the Trojan rivers near the mosquito infested swamps (malaria episode)
Helen and her extended family -- tin, copper, bronze, andrasit and brass; Mycenaean bronze containing twelve or even fifteen per cent of tin, no tin in Greece, tin came from Central Asia, bound to pass the Hellespont where the Trojans laid hands on the precious cargo, abducting Helen, as it were
Trojan horse -- a beautiful and apparently abandoned Achaean ship dragged into the Besik harbor by Trojan sailors, Achaean soldiers hide within, leave the ship in the dark of the night, overcome the Trojan guards, acropolis alarmed via a chain of signals, Trojan troops hasting to the Besik bay, meanwhile Achaean troops storm the acropolis of Troy, probably in the summer of 1184 BC, setting the acropolis on fire, blinding Polyphem, the one eye of the Much Famous cyclops who resembles more Ôa wooded hilltop than a man who eats breadÕ
oxen of Helios -- freight ships on the Black Sea
transgression of Odysseus' men -- a raid on the Krimean fleet, prolonging the series of conflicts in the east
travels to strange places -- Odysseus dreaming, reaching Troy in disguise and blended with other places and periods of time (Homer anticipating Freud's dream logic)
pleasant Scherie -- early Troy, when the Phaeakians were able pilots of foreign ships and helped sailors in the perilous waters (Eberhard Zangger), Odysseus recognizes where he is, what a lovely place he destroyed, or will destroy in the time perspective of the Phaeakians, and can't help weeping, then arrives home for good (Zangger) where another task awaits him
Penelope -- Peloponnese
her shameless suitors -- those who profit from the land without meeting their obligations
Athene -- course of history personified
Telemachos -- Far-away-war, far away from the Trojan war in time, Messenin wars, Homer of the Iliad living in the time of the first Messenian war, Homer of the Odyssey in the time of the second Messenian war, both compiling rich bardic material, both fearing for the unitiy of Greece
Plagues befalling Egypt in the Bible -- symbolize the invasion of the Sea Peoples and thus testify to turmoil in the time of the Trojan war.
Homeric family of metals. Beautiful Helen was the symbol of tin, by then most precious, her white arms tin ingots, her long glittering robes she made herself the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread tin wire, by then cut out of hammered tin sheet. Her husband xanthos Menelaos was the symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow brown red. Their daughter was lovely Hermione who resembled golden Aphrodite, Homeric symbol of bronze, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas - zinc in enslaved form, as it were. Their son, strong late come Megapenthes, was the symbol of brass, harder than bronze, arriving late in the 'family' of metals.
(Magdalenian reading help)
ITA CA, young bull ITA sky CA, under the sky of the young Zeus bull, ancient name of the Peloponnese, Ithaca, surviving in the name of a relatively small island
ATI CA, mature bull ATI sky CA, under the sky of the mature Zeus bull, Attica
POL PAS and PAS LOP, fortified settlement POL everywhere in a plain PAS enveloping wall LOP, fortified settlements everywhere enveloped in walls, ancient name of the Peloponnese and especially the Argolis personified in Penelope
AD LAS, toward AD mountain LAS, land oriented toward the former mythical world mountain, Atlantis, Eurasia, world mountain swept away by deluge, became present-day mountains, possible Atlantis epic by Trojan bard Demodokos 'Teacher of People' warning Trojans of hubris
KAL LAS, cave Underworld KAL mountain LAS, mythical hall inside former world mountain, home of metal people, Hellas, mythical home of Greeks
KAL KOS, cave Underworld KAL heavenly vault KOS, beautiful hall inside former world mountain mirroring the heavenly vault, a memory of this hall surviving in the lofty hall of Menelaos, Greek kallos 'beautiful' chalkos 'copper, bronze'
KAL EN, cave Underworld KAL in inside EN, Helen, beautiful Helen of the white arms, Homeric symbol of tin; Hellenes, originally miners from the banks of the Amu Darya in Central Asia, first Indo-European homeland
MAN LAS, right hand MAN mountain LAS, Menelaos who got rich by extracting metals with his right hand MAN from mountains LAS, originally from the Alai Mountains in Central Asia where copper and tin are associated, Menelaos Homeric symbol of copper, husband of Helen, the symbol of tin, their daughter lovely Hermione who resembles golden Aphrodite, Hermione the Homeric symbol of bronze, alloy of copper and tin, of a golden shine when freshly cast; family of metals originally inhabiting the beautiful hall in the former world mountain, when this mountain was swept away in the deluge the metals in the former hall became loads and veins in present-day mountains
GRA KOS, painted cave GRA heavenly vault KOS, Graekoi Greeks, named in reference to the beautiful hall in the former world mountain according to a myth of the early miners in Central Asia, 'paintings' carried out in metals, reliefs along the walls
TYR PAS, overcomer who rules and gives TYR everywhere in a plain PAS, naming TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus as the one who overcomes everybody everywhere PAS in weather and time, both ruling our lives but also given to us so that we make the best of them, former patron of TYR PAS Taruwisa Troy, itself overcoming the Troas, most important ancient trading hub
POL LAS or POL LAD, fortified settlement POL hill LAD mountain LAS, Pallas Athene, former patroness of POL LAS Wilusa Ilios Ilion, alternative name of Troy; Athene became a fierce enemy of Ilion and was the Homeric personification of history; her name from AD DA NAI, to find a new home NAI on a river that flows toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills and mountains, also trading routes that lead to one place while comingfrom another place, NAI AD DA accounting for Naiades, genitive of naiax 'Naiade'
AD POL LOP, toward AD fortified settlement POL enveloping wall LOP, Apollo shooting an arrow of light or sun beam toward the place of the gate of a future settlement, marking the place for a seer, faithful patron of Troy
PAD AD DA PAS TON, activity of feet PAD toward AD from DA everywhere in a plain PAS to make oneself heard TON, he who follows rivers that flow toward the sea while coming from hills and mountains, Doric Poteidas, and everywhere he comes to he makes himself heard, Greek Poseidon, originally the god of rivers, creator of the horse, faithful patron of Troy, although angry with Trojans for having been too hospitable, way more angry with Odysseus for blinding Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy, especially Troy VIIa
CO OC LOP, attentive mind CO right eye OC wall LOP, naming the organization of a fortified settlement, ruler of the focused mind in the center surrounded by watchful guards along the wall, Cyclops, cyclopic wall, the most famous Cyclops having been Polyphem 'Much Famous' who resembled more a wooded mountain top than a man who eats bread, Homeric symbol of Troy
PIR RAG, fire PIR towering RAG (a word of many meanings and derivatives, originally naming the line of head and back of an animal in cave art), signal fire on the hill Montmartre in Paris, France, guiding Neolithic boats on the Seine, while Paris prince of Troy overlorded the smiths and kept the signal fire on top of the acropolis, abducted beautiful Helen of the white arms, wife of Menelaos, confiscated Mycanean tin and thus caused the Trojan war.
Magdalenian and modern understanding of the soul
KA in the language of Southern Africa in the Middle Stone Age would have named what is beyond, in the sky, inside rock, in a well, and deep inside ourselves, accessible to a shaman or shamaness in a trance induced by a special breathing technique (hypothesis from the late spring and early summer of 2005). Animals in European cave art and in the rock art of Southern Africa are often shown as if emerging from or disappearing into clefts and niches in the rock, anticipating Vladimir Vernadzky's famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of stone.
The very ancient KA would have become Magdalenian CA for sky, inverse AC for an expanse with land, and KAL for cavity, cave, Underworld, inverse LAK for lake, in the ancient belief connected with the Underworld.
PIR GID the fire giver lit the solar eye and lunar eye of the sky god from the Gbekli Tepe, and warmed the seeds of life her sister the fertility giver BRI GID had planted into the primeval earth, whereupon animals emerged from clefts and niches in the rock. PIR SAI KAL named the soul as spark from the fire PIR of life SAI in a cavitiy KAL of rock, then in the hull of body and womb (kalyx 'hull of the fruit, capsule), and became Greek psychae Gothic saiwala Old English sawl New English soul
PIR SAI KAL P SAI KA P Sy chAe psychae
PIR SAI KAL SAI KAL SAI wALa saiwala
PIR SAI KAL SAI KAL SA wL sawl soul
Psychae also names a shadow on the wall, cast by a fire in the cave or hall. Psychein 'to breathe, blow' and psychos 'winter, frost' may have been named thus for they prove that a fire PIR of life SAI in the hull KAL of the body exists: we inhale cold air and exhale warm air, heated by the fire within (actual fire, slow and controlled combustion of oxygene).
I am not really certain about this etymology, but fairly sure that SAI for life is part of psychae sailwala sawl soul, and that English sex derives from the emphatic doubling SAI SAI life life ...
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of by far the most numerous and most widely varied derivatives, indicating that life may be seen as a bundle of abilities, and the soul as halo around them.
Sigmund Freud explained the soul via three basic biological abilities: nourishing oneself (gaining energy); getting rid of waste (shedding entropy); and procreating (multiplying and shuffling genetic combinations, genes being enablers).
The soul, we may say, coordinates abilities. Why can music affect and move us, even touch the soul? rhythms and melodies coordinate activities of our brain, connecting (I presume) the modern human areas with the ancient animal cores of the brain.
animus atman pneuma spirit
Latin animus 'breath, soul, spirit' may derive from ANI MmOS, spirit of a place ANI offspring MmOS, naming the spirit or better spirits of a place approaching a newborn child.
Sanskrit atman 'breath, self, soul' may derive from IAD MAN, healer IAD right hand MAN, naming a shamaness or shaman inviting a good spirit of the place to approach the newborn child and wake up the young soul, while warding off the bad spirits of the place, and doing that with the right hand MAN.
Greek pneuma of the same meanings may derive from RIP ANI MAN, to fan RIP spirit of a place ANI right hand MAN, naming a shamaness or shaman in the same function, fanning good spirits toward and bad ones away from a newborn child, and doing so with the right hand
RIP ANI MAN RIP NI MA IP NI MA P Neu MA pneuma
Latin spiritus covers the same range of meanings and includes high spirit, fire, and liquid. The word may derive from SAI PIR RYT, life SAI fire PIR archer RYT, referring to the fire archers PIR RYT of the fire giver PIR GID who provided the fire of life PIR SAI, the fire givers PIR RYT shooting 'fingers of light and luck' DIG LIC along the rivers PIR RYT Firat Euphrates and DIG LIC Dicle Tigris in the night of the fire giver in the wider region of the Gbekli Tepe, on New Year's Eve, also in rituals invoking the rain from the sky god. The resulting compound has affinities to the fire PIR of life SAI in the hull KAL of the body, accounting for Greek psychae (also for Gothic saiwala Old English sawl New English soul)
SAI PIR RYT S PIR RYT S PIR iT spirit
PIR SAI KAL P SAI KA P Sy chAe psychae
ANI has a derivative in German Ahne 'ancestor'. The spirit or rather spirits of a place would then have been ancestors. Our ancestors are still present in our genomes. Inviting some spirits to approach a newborn child and warding off other spirits has a counterpart in the epigenetic switches turning on and off genes. A variety of shamanic rituals performed around a newborn child would have supported the parents, perhaps even on the epigenetic level. The name given to a child could have mentioned a special feature of the place, providing a link between the child and the good spirit who had been invited by the shamaness or shaman to animate the young soul. A well chosen name could then have become a lifelong spiritual guide and help.
(I was named for Francesco d'Assisi who spoke with the animals. As boy I read a book about him, and was impressed. It may well have stimulated my interest in the basic features of language.)
origin of the gods
Worshipped ancestors, remembered for a long time, revered, implored for help from the beyond, became divine beings, deities, gods and goddesses, good ones in the sense of able DhAG, Latin deus dea, Greek theos thea (incompatible with deus dea in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian), Sumerian dingir, the early deities from the sacred Duku mountain of Sumerian mythology, and the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from DhAG DhAG able able. Now the ancestors have a real presence in our genome, in our genes that can be seen as enablers. When reading The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (second edition from 1989) I had the impression that he might as well be describing Homeric deities ...
Dawkins mentions a gene that is helpful to the young body but can turn obnoxious to the old body, so he proposes that we might find a way to fool that gene into believing we were still young. I might have experienced such a fooling, my body talking to the genes on the epigenetic level. When I got a bad diagnosis I fainted, and had a dream vision. I was a boy again, on a Sunday pleasure walk in the woods, the sun slanting between the high trunks of the fir trees, all very peaceful. Then I woke up, lying on the floor, surrounded by nurses, the sun slanting between the vertical lamettas of the blinds. The doctor gave me two years; meanwhile I survived for almost twenty years, no pills, no problems, no recidives. Then, some years later, I read Dawkins, and found a possible explanation for my dream vision in the hospital. My body might have addressed my genome: This body is still young, a boy, as it were, please let him live ...
Shamanic rituals might have worked in a similar way, imploring the able ones in nature and the beyond, reaching the enablers within. Religion can make sense even in the hard light of science. The problem with religion, in my opinion, is a betrayal of transcendence
We know exactly who God is and what He wants.
He wants what we want. He is our mighty henchman ...
However, the betrayal of transcendence also occurs in the sciences, where successful paradigmata are all too often turned from hypotheses into the truth, eternal and complete truth, nothing beyond.
love and work, our place in the world
The possibility of life may be ingrained in the fabric of the cosmos, allowing life to bud where the conditions are right, in a balance of the cosmic powers, maintaining and expanding a comfort zone by means of what we may call the intelligence of the lock - a small amount of energy needed for opening and closing the gates can lift a heavy ship from the lower to the higher level of a channel.
What Freud said of the conscious mind - a little king awake among slumbering giants, "ein kleiner wacher Knig unter schlummernden Riesen" - may also hold for life, no longer in the center of the world but still in the eye of the cosmic powers, visualized by the Sumerian pair of antithetic seropards (combining serpent and leopard), the long intertwined necks leaving a small free cirlce for the world of colors and warmth of life in between the blinding heat of the sun and freezing darkness of deep space.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of the most widely varied derivatives, indicating the harsh conditions of the Ice Age that challenged Homo sapiens, triggered inventions and asked for a range of new abilities on top of the basic abilities of life in the beautiful but mostly hostile vastness of space.
Freud summarized the human abilities in love and work. Love holds life together and secures the succession of generations, work maintains and expands our place in the world, our comfort zone where the cosmic powers are almost perfectly balanced, love and work themselves a balance among our abilities.
oscillations within the verbal morphospace
Magdalenian is a novel approach to early language and introduces a couple of new concepts, for example the verbal morphospace, a loan from evolutionary biology. There are no woodpeckers on the Galapagos islands, whereupon one of the finches took over the free place in the biological morphospace, developed a long beak and a cushioning of the brain, and hammers away at the bark of trees in search of larvae. Some fish became amphibia, then reptiles, then mammals, and some of the mammals returned to the sea and the life of fish, became dolphins and whales, explored and conquered new places in the marine morphospace.
Magdalenian KOD meaning tent, hut, and the comparative form KOS naming the heavenly vault as metaphorical ceiling of the world, have many derivatives, among them English cot cottage hut shed, German Kate 'hut' Htte 'hut', German Haus English house, French chteau English castle, French cit English city, French cosme English cosmos, then also English coat as casing of the body, hood and hat as casings of the head, and head as casing of the mind, German hten 'to guard' Hter 'guard', and many many more. English neighborhood became hood among hip hoppers and rappers, which can be seen as an oscillation within the verbal morphospace, Magdalenian KOD returning to a close variant in hood.
Another example of an oscillation within the verbal morphospace is English fur. Magdalenian BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed (a Greek custom reported by Porphyry in the second century AD, surviving in parts of the Slavic world until the twentieth century according to Marija Gimbutas). BIR has very many derivatives, among them Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather', Latin pella German Fell and Pelz English pelt, also English wool, a younger word from a time when furs were replaced by woven textiles. Also wear and weave derive from BIR. The bear was a furry one. The ancient custom of placing a newborn on a bear fur was replaced by the bearing-cloth in which a barne (bairn, child) was carried to be christened (Edward de Vere alias William Shakespeare in The Winter's Tale, Act 3 Scene 3 where also a bear is encountered). As the many derivatives of BIR drifted away, the place of the original word was left empty, but then French fourrure was borrowed into English and shortened to fur, with a general meaning, contrary to the specialized meaning of the French word, so that we can speak of another oscillation within the verbal morphospace.
My explanation is that Magdalenian words like KOD and BIR are still active in an unconscious layer of the English mind, where they are able to trap words in order to fill a vacant place within the verbal morphospace.
The branching of words is a genuine concern of the Magdalenian approach to early language. We can hope for more insights in the coming years, or even decades?
etymology of English fur, with a caveat
Eric Hamp, in the Webster's Unabriged, gives this etymology of English fur: Middle English furre (noun), derivative of furren 'to trim with fur', from Anglo-French furrer, Old French fo(u)rrer originally 'to encase', derivative of furre 'sheath', from Germanic; akin to Old English fodder 'case, sheath'.
I see two Magdalenian words
BIR fuerre fo(u)rrer furren fur
PAD pad feet --- feed food fodder
BIR meaning fur has a derivative in Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather', naming the material out of which a fuerre 'sheath' was made. Another derivative is French bourse English purse German Geldbrse, also French bourse German Brse 'stock exchange', originally fur and leather bags filled with precious goods and tokens.
PAD means activity of feet, while the comparative form PAS means everywhere (in a plain). Close derivatives are to pad and foot feet, distant ones feed fodder food, referring to cattle grazing on a pasture, moving on their feet, and to hunters, gatherers, farmers, herdsmen, traders, and so on, gathering and gaining their food on their feet as well. German fttern 'feed' also has a metaphorical sense: placing something into something else, for example glasses into a Futteral 'case', or you can fttern 'feed' the inside of a coat with a soft and silky cloth, and you can fttern 'feed' a parkingmeter with coins, the old sense kept alive in a humoristic parlance.
Fuerre 'sheeth' and fodder 'case, sheath' are then not akin but derive from different words, one mentioning the material out of which a sheath was made, the other the function of placing something smaller into something bigger, in analogy to food gathered and gained on the feet, animals grazing, humans working, both walking around. The biological reason for evolving legs and feet has been the gathering of food. PAD accounting for both feet and feed is not just a coincidene or a superficial parallel.
Caveat. If there is a Frankish sound law turning *Fodra into fuerre, pater into pre, cathedra into chaire, then these transitions happen in the presence of an attractor
*Fodra fuerre fourrage etc.
attractor BIR meaning fur
attractor BIR meaning fur
bearer of the burden and purse
owner of a distinguishing fur coat
attractor KOS chaise chaire
chaise turned into chaire by rhotacism
Greek hedra 'seat, living place, temple' derives from KOD meaning tent, hut, a word of many derivatives, while katha 'just like' may derive from the comparative form KOS meaning heavenly vault - a ceiling is just like the heavenly canopy or vault.
comment for beginners
Magdalenian words come in pairs and groups. I mined them along my four laws of Magdalenian in the spring of 2005 (using my first pair of laws) and mainly in the spring of 2006 (using two more laws)
inverse forms have related meanings
permutations yield words around the same meme
D-words have comparative forms in S-words
important words can have lateral associations
BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed - a bear fur in Hellenistic Greece (Porphyry) and in parts of the Slavic world until the twentieth century (Marija Gimbutas). The special meaning is own to the meme of the permutation group of six words. BIR has very many derivatives, for example English bear as the furry one (versus bear as the brown one, first Magdalenian test case, from August 2008). An important permutation is BRI meaning fertile, naming the fertility giver BRI GID, also present in Greek Aphrodite
BRI GID a BRI GID e Aphrodite
while the powerful Celtic triple goddess Brigit combines the fire giver PIR GID and fur giver BIR GID and fertility giver BRI GID.
PAD PAS belong to a permutation group of a dozen words. PAD means activity of feet (look out for derivatives), inverse DAP activity of hands. PAD has a comparative form in PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. Inverse SAP means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages, also Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'worldly wisdom' acquired by exploring the world in all seven places. English sap names the fluid circulating in plants, in a tree: here, in the trunk we can touch, below in the roots and above in the crown, in the branches and roots that point and grow toward south and north, east and west. A tree seen that way inspired the ancient idea of a world tree.
genetics and word language
Drawing parallels between genetics and word language: stasis and oscillations / occasional branching of species and words / genetic 'words' of three 'letters and Magdalenian words of three phonemes / double helix and shamanic double formulae that may have anticipated our rhymes / power of compounds.
Word language might be what Richard Dawkins calls an extended phenotype.
Stasis in biology was the big topic of Stephen Jay Gould ("stasis is data") who marveled that certain features persisted in phyla basically unchanged although they were separated five-hundred million years ago. The analog in language might be micro- and macro-oscillations, both keeping language stable. As example of micro-oscillations you may consider the following spellings of the annual item 'Gaol and Hospital' by the Constables of Bozeat in the late 17th century: Gel and Aspitol, Jeal and Quartridge, Jail and Hospittle, Gayll and Ostetall, Gele and Asptol, Jayl and Aspetell (from the charming booklet Bozeat - Your Village History, kindly sent to me by Marc Logan who wrote hilarious parodies in sci.archaeology). Words oscillate while their phonetic 'centers of gravity' remain fairly stable. Vacant places in the verbal morphospace filled by loans are then examples of macro-oscillations.
We still don't know how words are stored in the brain. And we don't really know how stasis works. A vague idea of mine is a genetic masterplan, a biological computer, internal equations checking on variants and guiding evolution to some degree from the inside, going beyond mere chance and preventing life from being thrown against every cliff.
missing from the picture
The problem with religion is a betrayal of transcendence: We know exactly who God is and what He wants. He wants what we want. He is our mighty henchman ... And the problem with science is that successful paradigmata are generalized, absolutized, turned into dogmata and
imposed as the only truth. Consider the most successful paradigm of mechanics that led to the clockwork universe, and to animals as mere automata unable of feeling – every child knows better. Now for evolution. Darwin discovered gradual evolution by natural selection. His model was highly successful but not complete. A friend informed him about the fossile record of crocodiles that survived unchanged for hundred-and-fifty million of years, through all the slow and cataclysmic changes of the environment over that long period of time. Darwin could not explain this, and ignored the problem. He had a right to focus on the mechanism he had discovered. However, Ernst Haeckel and others made selection the only principle of evolution and thus paved the way for the eugenic programs of the past century.
Darwin ruled out Lamarck. Meanwhile Lamarckism is partly rehabilitated by the great discovery of epigenetics. What else will be discovered in the coming decades and centuries and millennia? Richard Dawkins and others should not make fun of everybody who looks beyond the fence of the current understanding. "Stasis is data" wrote Stephen Jay Gould. As long as it remains unexplained, something very big is missing from the picture.
Oscillations are fundamental in modern physics where they appear in the form of quantum fluctuations of the vacuum. Such a fluctuation might even have been the origin of our universe.
I have a hunch that oscillations of proteins could play a role in biological computing. Decoding the proteome is way more challenging than was the one of the genome. We might profit from correlating different realms also in this task.
is mathematics a language?
Word language can be seen as a triangle of the corners life with needs and wishes, mathematics as logic of building and maintaining based on the formula a = a , and art as human measure in a technical world based on Goethe's formula all is equal, all unequal ...
Galilei famously wrote that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics ... God may understand all of nature in mathematical terms whereas we just deciphered the first lines on the first page, so to say. For our understanding the world falls apart into contrary perspectives that mutually exclude each other while each one is indispensable.
Between the logic of mathematics (a = a) and the wider logic of nature and life and art (equal unequal) appear paradoxa, the infinite that is equal and unequal itself, and can't really be tamed, there is always the other side of logic.
Mathematics per se is no language, but it can be seen as a corner of language in the above map of word language.
Magdalenian revival (part 1)
Magdalenian would have been the lingua franca of shamans and shamanesses in the last Ice Age, fully developed stage of an older shamanic language that goes back to Chauvet (32 000 BP) and the earliest level of Altamira (41 000 BP) and perhaps to northernIndia and the Aran Valley in Nepal (60 000 BP ?) where Homo sapiens sapiens, having left Africa (100,000 years ago) and slowly traversed Arabia felix (a resting place dated to 75,000 years ago), coming from the hot south, encountered the cold and icy north, which would have triggered both technological and cultural progress including the one of word language.
Cave art and rock art and mobile art are essential for Magdalenian. The oldest element of cave art identified so far is a red ocher dot on a wall of the Altamira cave, dated to around 41,000 years ago. Ceilings and walls of a cave often represented the sky, Magdalenian CA, while dots, especially red ones, had the meaning of SAI for life, existence. The oldest red ocher dot on a wall of the Altamira cave would have claimed a new life SAI in the sky CA for a worthy soul
SAI CA pSAI CA psychae 'soul'
A more elaborate version of the same claim is the large inscription in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave, some 32,000 years old, a domino five and an additional dot in elevated position, in all six dots, big red ocher dots applied with a palm. Around Easter 2006 (as I remember) one Holly identified the domino five with Magdalenian PAS for everywhere (in a plain). The additional dot in elevated position may then read CA for sky. Together, and combined with the scene on a stalactite in the rear hall of Chauvet: May the bull man, the supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, be born again by the goddess above, may he roam the heavens in his next life as he roamed the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
PAS CA Paskha Pasqua Pques (Russian Italian French for Easter)
Magdalenian would have been preserved - conveyed, commited to memory, and kept stable - in shamanic formulae, often double formulae that remained active until the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and even Iron Age, accounting for many words we are still using today.
Magdalenian revival (part 2)
The amazing lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, reconstructed from ideograms in early 2005, asked for a matching language. I remembered Richard Fester and his five ur-words BA KALL TAL ACQ TAG, and his map of villages in the Guyenne whose names end on -ac and -acq, for example Rouffignac and Cognac. ACQ has the meaning of water. I modified it to AC for an expanse of land with water, inverse CA for sky, Old Latin caelum.
In the beginning I merely played. What can be said with very short words? For example I invented a love formula, OC LIC MA OC, I see light and am lucky, apple of my eye, I love you and see the light in your eye ..., OC meaning eye and to see, LIC meaning light and luck, MA meaning my mine. Already Richard Fester noticed how close the words for light and luck are. I postulated LIC for light and luck, with a derivate in Latin lux lumen for light, lumen explaining -lum in Old Latin caelum Latin coelom for sky, so that we may assume the original form CA LIC sky light, while the second meaning luck (Latin felix 'lucky') may tell us how much daylight was valued in early times when there was no eletric light, and the nights pitch black.
Richard Fester gave each ur-word a wide range of meanings, occasionally noticing that inverse forms and permutations have related meanings. I made the same observations with my words, and postulated a pair of Magdalenian laws
inverse forms have related meanings
important words can have lateral associations
Using these laws I mined words in the spring of 2005. Two more laws followed in early 2006
D-words have comparative forms in S-words
important words can have lateral associations
These laws, together with the first ones, allowed me to mine some four hundred words in the spring of 2006, many groups of a dozen words, and a very large group of seventy-two words around DAI for protected area and SAI for life, existence.
Consulting Richard Fester again I see how much I owe him. His ur-words have many meanings, and some hold in the Magdalenian form, KALL = Hhle 'cave' while Magdalenian has KAL for cave, Underworld, or TAG and the gods, Magdalenian DhAG for able, good in the sense of able, accounting for very many derivatives, among them Greek theos and Latin deus (incompatible in Proto-Indo-European, well compatible in Magdalenian), English deity and divine, Sumerian dingir announcing a deity, also naming the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology where the early gods came from (identified with the Gbekli Tepe by Klaus Schmidt), and the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from the emphatic doubling DhAG DhAG able able.
Magdalenian revival (part 3)
In all I mined a good four hundred words that allow many meaningful compounds, power and pride of Magdalenian.
Test cases from August 2008 till March 2014
bear as the furry one versus bear as the brown one
deus theos / Zeus versus deus Zeus / theos
DhAG deus theos Dis Dios
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus
words for horse
AS PAC aspa asva PAC AS AS Pegasos Pegasus
AC PAS *h1ekwos hippos equus, Epona
RYT Ritter, Ross und Reiter, horse and rider
first IE homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya
center the triangle Termez - Kunduz - Kurgan T'upe
second IE homeland Uralic steppes east of Rha Volga
third IE homeland Pontic steppes west of Rha Volga
double formula naming the supreme sky and weather
god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
etymology of English fur
BIR ... fuerre fo(u)rrer furrer furre fur
PAD ... fodder
BIR meaning fur has a derivative in Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather' and another in fuerre 'sheath' made of these materials, while the general meaning and short form of BIR is regained in English fur via an oscillation. PAD meaning activity of feet named the feet, Latin pedes Greek podoi, then also the food gathered and gained on our feed, fodder in the case of grazing animals, while fodder 'case, sheath' names a small container 'fed' with an object. From the vantage point of Magdalenian fuerre 'sheath' and fodder 'sheath' are not akin (or then BIR was an attractor that regained *Fodre, as explained in a caveat above).
Magdalenian works best for thematic and epic complexes. The novel approach to early language requires a change of perspective, along the flow of time. Helpful are stories that reveal impossibilities and gaps of a historical hypothesis. Everybody loves a story, a fable, a fairy tale. They represent the way our brain works most easily.
Magdalenian revival (part 4)
I mined Magdalenian words in the springs of 2005 and 2006, wondering whether spring was my linguistic season? Now I saw a tv documentary on song birds from which I learned that not only male but also female birds whistle or sing, and that a certain bird grows more neurons in the song area of the brain in spring ...
Then there was another tv documentary on a neurological phenomenon. When we watch an action the same neurons are activated as if we carried out that action ourselves. A woman neurologist (discoverer of that phenomenon?) asked an experimental archaeologist to first fabricate a simple hand axe, universal tool for millions of years, and then a fine symmetrical hand axe as we know them from the Upper Paleolithic, and filmed the fabrication of each hand axe. Then she showed the films to probands in the MRI (tube). When they watched the fabrication of the simple hand axe, their Broca area lit up to seven per cent, and when they watched the fabrication of the fine symmetrical hand axe, their Broca area lit up to fourteen per cent ... This proves what I claimed in 1974/75, that word language develops together with the fabrication of tools and other objects, and that symmetry plays a role not only in mathematics but also in language (sentences being basically equations). Now, watching this report, I thought of symmetry in Magdalenian, inverse forms having related meanings and permutations yielding words around the same meme. For the first time I see a glimpse of neurological evidence for the pair of Magdalenian laws from the spring of 2005.
Magdalenian revival (part 5)
The time was ripe for Magdalenian.
In 1996 Derk Ohlenroth published his decipherment of the Phaistos Disc - of the Elaia disc and Tiryns disc baked together.
A real decipherment is a window on the past (contrary to a window painted on the wall) and offers surprises.
The Elaia disc led me to Old Europe in the sense of Marija Gimbutas while the Tiryns disc allowed me to link the Middle Helladic Argolis personified in Eponymous Tiryns with Lord Laertes the gardener and father of Odysseus in Homer's epic.
The big surpise for me is the name of Zeus in the center of the Tiryns disc, Sseyr. oldest version of the Zeus name known so far, from around 1 650 BC.
Douglas G. Kilday wrote many inspiring messages and replies. One of them helped me establish TYR for overcomer, as verb to overcome in the double sense of rule and give. TYR is present in Greek tyrant (- a tyrant in our sense when he turns the maxime 'rule and give' into the strategy 'rule and take'). Inverse RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, named a Greek rhytaer 'archer, protector'. TYR would have become emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr, Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) and Homeric Zeus
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus
while DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able - the Magdalenian word of by far the most varied derivatives - became Latin deus and Greek theos, also Latin Dis and Greek Dios, the latter the genitive of the Zeus name, perhaps originally his byname
DhAG deus theos Dis Dios
(essentially my second Magdalenian test case).
Magdalenian revival (part 6)
In the same year 1996 Klaus Schmidt began excavating the Gbekli Tepe, archaeological sensation of my lifetime.
Among the many sculptures is a big limestone ring. The inner circle is minimally sculpted, in such a way that if you place the ring against the sky, the hollow evokes a male head en face, confined by the arc of the skull, a pair of ears, and the arc of the chin, a male face composed of air and light, AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS ...
AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos (whose name inspired the above reading) and Varuna, the sky god of the Indus Valley later relegated to the Underworld. AAR RAA, he of air AAR and light RAA, presided over AAR RAA AD DA Harappa on a river that flows toward AD the Arab Sea while coming from DA the Himalayas. AD DA became a river formula, a generic river name, also accounting for Indus. AAR RAA CA, he in the air AAR and light RAA of the sky CA named the golden boy muruku, Tamil Murukan, and the Egyptian Horus falcon whose left eye was the moon and whose right eye was the sun, while AAR RAA AC, he in the air AAR and light RAA on the
earth AC named Horus Horakhty, Horus on the horizon. RAA became the supreme god manifesting himself in the solar disc. AAR became German Aar, Knig der Lfte, Aar a name of the eagle, king of the sky, literally of the airs. AAR RAA is found in English aura, and in Rumantg aura 'weather' (language of the eastern Swiss Alps). AAR RAA NOS named valleys like the Val d'Aran, Arundel, or the Val d'Hrens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills or mountains filled with air and light ...
Magdalenian revival (part 7)
One of the hieroglyphs on the Gbekli Tepe is a lying H whose horizontal bars represent earth and sky, earth AC and sky CA together AC CA - where earth and sky are meeting, or where they had been separated in the act of creation ...
The Egyptians recorded a Syrian province by the name of aqa, not yet identified, perhaps the region of the Gbekli Tepe in southeast Anatolia and northern Syria?
AC CA named the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, earth AC under the sky CA, the Egyptian earth god Aker, Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and via the form CA AC the Greek earth goddess Gaia, under the sky CA the earth AC.
The slim vertical bar of the lying H indicates exchanges between earth and sky, especially prayers for rain and sacrificial fires imploring rain, symbolized by snakes heading upward, and falling rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires, symbolized by snakes heading downward, rain filling water holes and river beds, rivers symbolized by snakes undulating horizontally. Snakes are the most frequent symbols on the Gebkli Tepe. AC CA in the context of water related exchanges between earth and sky became Latin aqua 'water'.
12,000 years ago the region of the Gbekli Tepe was a paradise of lush meadows, groves, and game galore, heading for the cool Anatolian hills in spring, returning to the warm Syrian plains in fall. Agriculture was invented in the area and era of the Gbekli Tepe. However, that
region was on the southern margin of the Fertile Crescent, rain not always granted.
A drought gave way to a heavy rain that fell for forty days and forty nights, washed away the fertile soil, made rivers swell and overflow, fords impassable, drowned people and animals. NOS AAR RAA Noah, he who knows and obeys the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA, left the Gbekli Tepe region. One NOS AAR RAA Noah tribe followed the Euphrates upward and settled north of the AAR RAA RYT Mount Ararat, abode of the one of air AAR and light RAA who was the sun archer RYT (and later became the Armenian sun archer Tir from inverse TYR in the Bronze Age), while the other NOS AAR RAA Noah tribe followed the Euphrates downward and founded AAR RAA CA Uruk, a settlement presided over by the one of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, Uruk of the cattle enclosure that became the ark in the Bible, contracted with the Noah settlement north of Mount Ararat for the sake of brevity and poetical vigor that helped a story survive.
Magdalenian revival (part 8)
AD means toward, inverse DA away from. AD DA named a river flowing toward the sea while coming from the hills and mountains. DAL means valley, dale, inverse LAD hill, accounting for English land as rolling hills. AD has a comparative form in AS for upward, inverse DA in SA for downward, DAL in SAL for watery ground of a valley, and LAD in LAS for mountain, Greek laas 'stone, rock, cliff'.
AD LAS named the Eurasian plains oriented toward the very long mountain range from northern Spain and southern France via the Alps to the Himalayas, in reference to AD LAS Atlantis, an oral epic and moralic tale about the beginnings of the Bronze Age in the Alai Mountains, where copper and tin is found associated in the same mines, above the banks of the Amu Darya, first Indo-European homeland.
TYR who became Sseyr Sseus Zeus and his eagle resided on top of the primeval world mountain. Inside the mountain was a beautiful cave or hall, KAL LAS, cave KAL in the mountain LAS, decorated with reliefs of metals and precious stone, also known as GRA KOS, decorated cave GRA under a ceiling of shining metals and glittering gems evoking the heavenly vault KOS. The beautiful hall was inhabited by the metal people, while the humans of the first world lived around the mountain, in the plains and hills oriented toward the world mountain, AD LAS Atlantis.
The epic told how the good life was ended by rebellion and transgression, followed by a terrible flood drowning all people, sparing one single couple, tearing apart the world island, stretching the world mountain into the long Ripaean mountain of Eurasia, and the precious reliefs into veins and loads in our mountains of the second world ...
Two miner tribes left the Alai Mountains and first Indo-European homeland on the banks of the Amu Darya some 5,500 years ago, wandered westward, settled in the southern Balkans, and called the land KAL LAS Hellas and GRA KOS Greece, themselves Hellenoi Hellenes and Graekoi Greeks. The beautiful hall is also remembered in the magnificient hall of Menelaos mentioned in book four of Homer's Odyssey,
inhabited by a family of metals. Beautiful Helen is the Homeric symbol of tin, her white arms are tin ingots, her long glittering robes she made herself is the glittering tin ore cassiterite, her thread tin wire cut out of hammered tin sheet. Her husband xanthos Menelaos is the Homeric symbol of copper, the color xanthos covering all hues of copper ore, yellow brown red. Their daughter lovely Hermione who resembles golden Aphrodite is the Homeric symbol of bronze, alloy of copper and tin, of a golden shine when freshly cast. Menelaos had a slave woman for a mistress, andrasit, a natural alloy of copper and zinc found in the Troas - zinc in enslaved form, as it were. Their son strong late come Megapentes brass, harder than bronze, arriving late in the family of metals. KAL EN Helen, tin found inseide EN caves or mines KAL. MAN LAS Menelaos, commander of copper miners working with their right hand MAN in mountains LAS. CER MAN Hermione, shamans CER manipulating MAN the precious ores from the Alai mountains, copper and tin associated in the same mines, thus obtaining bronze, which was a historical achievement of great consequence.
Magdalenian revival (part 9)
Copper and tin associated in the same mines of the Alai Mountains above the banks of the Amu Darya, first Indo-European homeland, allowed to cast bronze, make bridles with bronze bits, tame horses, and use them for transporting loads up a hill or a mountain slope, AS PAC aspa asva, Avestan and Sanskrit for horse, upward AS horse PAC, emphatic PAC AS AS Pegasos Pegasus, horse up up, winged horse of poetry, originally personifying the hot summer wind Afghanetz blowing from the Aral Sea along the Amu Darya up to the AD DA KOS Hindu Kush, mountain of many rivers AD DA under the heavenly vault KOS ...
The horse of the second IE homeland in the Pontic steppes east of the Rha Volga and of the third IE homeland in the Pontic steppes west of the Rha Volga was named by a phonetically similar but semantically different compound, AC PAS *h1ekwos hippos equus, expanse of land with water AC everywhere (in a plain) PAS - riding a horse you can get everywhere on earth ...
AC PAS also accounts for the name of the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona. Her main sanctuary was Alesia / Alise St. Reine at the base of Mont Ro, near one of the sources of the River Seine. Epona rode a horse in lady fashion, accompanied by a bird, a foal, and a dog. She was an alter ego of the river goddess REO Rheia Rhea (Rha Renus Rhine Rodanus Rhone), mother of Zeus Poseidon Hades, their emblematic animals eagle horse dog.
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus overcame in the double sense of rule and give, and overlooked the land in the guise of an eagle. PAD AD DA Poteidas PAS TON Poseidon named the Doric and Greek river god (who only later became the god of the seas), he who walks PAD along rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills or mountains, and everywhere PAS he and his horses come to, they make themselves heard TON. Hades would have been the proto-type of a metal worker, from KOD DhAG, hut KOD German Htte, here Htte in the sense of smelting works, verhtten 'to smelt', a demanding sort of work requiring an able one DhAG, the precious ores and ingots protected by watchful dogs, also English dog from DhAG.
Magdalenian had PAC for horse, PEC for cattle, PIC for bird. CA LAB named the winter sun horse, accounting for gallop, and for German Klepper, an old and tired horse. CA BEL named the spring sun horse, sky warm, in a longer form CA BEL IAS, sky warm healing, the warm sun of spring healing ailments of a long and harsh winter, ABelios AFelios Helios, Greek sun god with a quadriga of horses. CA BAL named the summer sun horse, sky hot, Latin caballus and Spanish caballo. Hear them run
CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB CA LAB ...
CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL CA BEL ...
CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL CA BAL ...
Magdalenian revival (part 10)
Altamira belongs to my favorite caves. By far the largest painted animal therein is a beautiful hind, three meters long, licking the horns of a small young bison under her, while the walls and ceilings are covered with bisons in rounded, compact forms.
The beautiful hind is the Divine Hind CER -: I -: or CER LIL (pronounce the consonant given as -: by touching both lips with the tip of your tongue). She called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Her name has a derivative in Hera, cow-eyed goddess, another in *kerdeh- 'herd, series', -: I -: alone in the loba call of Celtic herdsmen to their cattle, surviving in the locally famous lyoba call of herdsmen in the Swiss Canton of Fribourg.
The Divine Hind was the goddess of life and love, -: I -: having further derivatives in German Leben English life, German Liebe English love, German Lippe English lip (licking the lips once was a sign of love and desire, can still indicate appetite and lust), Latin libido 'desire', Ugaritic dd 'loved one' and Phoenician Dido 'Beloved one', Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', the female given name Lily and flower lily, German Laub 'foliage' and Laube 'arbor, bowery', indicating arbors made in honor of the goddess. While some bisons have regular tail in the form of 'paint brushes' others have tails in the form of 'fir twiglets'.
The Divine Hind Woman had been worshipped in the winter constellation ORE EON Orion, she on the beautiful ORE shore or bank EON of the heavenly lake or river CA LAK overformed by Galaxy 'Milky Way'. Her husband was the Divine Stag or Stag Man CER KOS, the stag or shaman CER of the heavenly vault KOS, his proud antlers seen in the summer constellations we know as Sagittarius and Scorpio, his tree the oak, Latin quercus, Gaulish rkos 'oak-forest'.
How can we hope to not only receive but also decipher signals and messages from an extra-terrestrian civilization if we don't even understand the legacy of our ancient forebears?
Magdalenian began as an experiment, became an adventure, and is now a revival. I see the Magdalenian spirit still at work. We cast out verbal filaments around which ideas materialize.
Ararat Masis Judi
The male triad of the Gbekli Tepe region would have been AAR RAA NOS and GIS BAL CA MmOS and AD DA MAN. He of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS would have been the sky god residing on the Karacadag at whose base the oldest breeded einkorn was found, 10,000 years old. The sky god was implored for rain. One of his helpers would have been the gesturing GIS hot(headed) BAL heavenly CA offspring MmOS who became GISh.BIL.GA.MISh Gilgamesh in Sumer, BAL Baal, and CA MmOS Kemosh in Moab. His other helper would have been AD DA MAN who created rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA hills and mountains, and did so with his right hand MAN.
The sky god in the form of the (sun) archer AAR RAA RYT would have resided on the mountains of Ararat mentioned in the Bible, overlooking the region called Ayrarat north of the beautiful mountain where the AAR RAA MAN Armenians dwelled, carrying out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with their right hand MAN, while the worshippers of the AAR RAA Hurri bull wandered from the northwest to the south of the mountain range where they settled on the shores of Lake Van, calling themselves Hurrites and their land Urartu, again for the sun archer AAR RAA RYT. Another name of Mount Ararat was mountain of the beautiful king Ara, AAR RAA MAN Araman Ara. North of the range flows the river Araxes, from AAR RAA KOS, filled with rain sent by the one of air AAR and light RAA who dwells in the heavenly vault KOS.
If the Armenian name of the mountain, Masis, doesn't go back to a personal name, it may derive from a short form of GIS BAL CA MmOS, MmOS Masis, the more so as Mount Ararat is a volcano.
Semitic / Arabic Judi Dagh may go back to the double formula invoking the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ShA CA DhAG CA named Jahwe - ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG in the sky CA - while ShA DhAG would have named the mountain as abode of the ruler ShA who was able DhAG, together ShA DhAG Judi.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, accounts for mountain dag dagh dagi, also present in Judi Dagh, and for the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology where the early deities came from, identified with the Gbekli Tepe by Klaus Schmidt.
Azzi Hayasa Armenia
AC CA named the Gbekli Tepe as hill where the earth AC and sky CA were meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the act of creation.
AAR RAA NOS was the sky god, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS. He was implored for rain with prayers and the smoke of sacrificial fires. Water was most important, a synonym of life SAI. Prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain rose upward AS while the rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires fell downward SA, together we have SAI AS SA for the Gbekli Tepe, where the rain imploring rituals took place.
NOS AAR RAA Noah knew and obeyed the mind NOS of the one of air AAR and light RAA, he recognized the signs, a series of droughts followed by heavy rains, and decided to leave the region of the Gbekli Tepe some 9,500 years ago. Several Noah tribes followed the Euphrates downward, others upward.
AC CA Azzi and SAI AS SA Hayasa were Bronze Age tribes and vassals of Hattusas, the former dwelling north of the Euphrates and the latter south of Trabzon. King Hayk, named for the Hayasa tribe, united the neighbors and founded a nation that was called Armenia by the Iranians and Greeks in the middle of the first millennium BC. Hayk was a descendant of Noah and had himself a descendant in Aram named for the ancient AAR RAA MAN people, they who carried out the will of the one of air AAR and light RAA with their right hand MAN, a compound also naming the Aramaeans.
AAR RAA NOS became the Greek sky god Ouranos, and Varuna of the Indus Valley, originally a sky god, then relegated to the Underworld (comparable to the sun god Sol of Latium who became a chthonic god). He named valleys like the Val d'Aran and Arundel (Crown's evidence of the Vasconic theory of early language) and the Val d'Hrens in the western Swiss Alps, a valley being a hollow between hills and mountains filled with air and light ... The Val d'Hrens is joined by the neighboring Val d'Hrmence whose name I derive from AAR RAA MAN
AAR RAA NOS Ouranos Varuna Aran Arun- Hrens
NOS AAR RAA Noah
AAR RAA RYT Ararat Ayrarat Urartu
AAR RAA Hurri
AAR RAA KOS Araxes
AAR RAA MAN Aram Armenia Aramaean Hrmence
What are now isolated names had once been elements of a widespread and long lasting religion. Several religions followed each other while the basic pattern remained remarkably stable considering the opening lines of the Swiss national anthem that invokes God high up in a sea of light rays ...
NOS AAR RAA Noah became in our days a climatologist who watches for telltale signs, droughts followed by heavy rains, revealing that we change the climate, only that we can't leave our home, the planet on which we live.
land of Kar-da (etymology of Kurd)
The Divine Hind of Altamira called life into existence, out of clefts and niches in the rock, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. KAL means cave, Underworld, and GAR named clefts and niches in rock where animals emerge from and disappear into, both in the cave art of Europe and rock art of Southern Africa, anticipating Vladimir Vernadsky's famous dictum of life being the metamorphosis of rock. DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, named mountains as abode of the able ones, deities, in the form of da dag dagh dagi.
GAR DhAG Kar-da Qurda Kurd
The Kurds are from western Asia. A Sumerian text mentions the land of Kar-da which is read as mountain da of Kar. In the light of Magdalenian we can read this name as GAR DhAG and translate is as follows: they who (or land of those who) worship the life giving goddess in a cave, and the able sky god on a hill or mountain.
The sky god may have been LIC AAR, he of light LIC and air AAR, counterpart of AAR RAA NOS, he of air AAR and light RAA with a mind NOS, and would have beome Lur, naming the Kurdish tribe called Lur, and Luristanas land of the Lurs, worshippers of LIC AAR Lur
LIC AAR LI AR L u R
KAL named the Kurdish tribes Kalhor and Kulmani, and GAR the Guran.
A bronze disc from a grave in Luristan, diameter 11.5 cm, around 1 000 BC, goes along with the above readings. A seated woman wearing a roof-like hat of twigs gives birth to a man whose round head and face emerge from her womb, from her vagina, under her, upside down. She is flanked by six star-flowers in the Orion pattern, and by a pair of antithetic ibices, midwinter emblem according to Marie E.P. Knig. In my opinion the goddess is a descendant of the Divine Hind Woman who called life into existence, also moon bulls, was honored with arbors and boweries, worshipped in the winter constellation of Orion, and flanked by a pair of antithetic ibices. The round head and face of the man may indicate the moon, or the sky god whose eyes were moon and sun. The life giving goddess would make the promise of a next life in the beyond for a worthy soul, equating the beginning of a life with the one of a year.
New Year followed the two and sometimes three days of the midwinter festival in the lunisolar calendar of the Gbekli Tepe, and is the main festival of the Kurds, although not - or no longer - coinciding with midwinter.
Ebla in the wheat growing land of Minut
founded a colony at Knossos ruled by Minos
A double formula named Ebla in the land of Minut
SAP BIR LAC
MUC NOS DAI / SAI
They who find water everywhere SAP (here, in the south and north, east and west, below and above, in all seven places) and fill their bags of fur BIR (the SAP BIR apiru Hebrews from BIR SAP Beersheba) came here and built an irrigation system and ponds and a lake LAC
SAP BIR LAC A BI LA e B LA Ebla
here, in the land of astronomers who observe the bulls MUC of the moon and sun, and study the lunar and solar cycles with their mind NOS in a proteced area DAI, within the massive wall of Ebla / under the tree of life SAI
MUC NOS DAI MU Nu tI mu-nu-ti-um mnt Minnit
MUC NOS SAI Mi Nu the Min-Nu-The Minos
MUC NOS SAI C NOS SAI Knossos
Ebla was inhabited from around 3 500 BC onward and in full bloom under Abur-lim in 2 520 BC who might have been Eber mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 10:24) whose father Salah might have commanded waterworks in the watery ground SAL of the land AC
SAL AC SAL Ah Salah
SAP BIR AP BIR A BuR Abur Eber
SAP BIR AP BIR AP IRu apiru Hebrew
Wheat was grown in the region of Ebla since 9,000 years ago. A region called mu-nu-ti-um is mentioned at Ebla in around 2 200 BC, Ugaritic mnt, while the Bible speaks of wheat from Minnit (Ezekiel 27:17) and Linear A tablet Hagia Triada deciphered by Walther Hinz lists up amounts of wheat from Mi-Nu-The given to the priests of Adu and the priestesses of Dadumatha, she loved by the master.
Ebla was the trading center of Syria, with connections to far away countries like Egypt. We may assume that Ebla founded a colony on Crete, Knossos, ruled by Minos
MUC NOS SAI C NOS SAI Knossos
MUC NOS SAI Mi Nu the Mi-Nu-The Minos
Mi-Nu-The is given the same way in Hieroglyphic Minoan (ca. 2 800 BC) and Linear A and B (considerably younger), Mi by the head of a bull, Nu by the visual pun of a bull leaper standing on the feet hands feet, and The by a tree of life. Mi derives from MUC for bull, here the bulls of moon and sun; Nu derives from NOS for mind, here the mind of an astronomer coping with lunar and solar cycles; and The derives from SAI for life, here a tree of life.
DAI for protected area named Daidalos, builder of the labyrinth at Knossos, home of Minotaur. The legend of Minotaur andTheseus encodes a lunisolar calendar which anticipated the Metonic cycle of 19 years or 235 lunations (as explained in my previous Magdalenian thread, in a message of the long series 'tying up loose ends -- epic mind of the past') while Ariadne's thread was an additive number sequence relating years and lunations and days
3-37-1096 8-99-2922 11-136-4018 19-235-6940 30-371-10958 (better value 10957)
The above may be seen as a further Magdalenian test case, one that offers a real, physical test. Ebla is being excavated since 1964, no longer than fifty years. We may expect more findings. I predict remains of an artificial lake in the vicinity of Ebla.
Ur Ebla Knossos
An inlaid front panel of the Great Lyre with bull's head from Early Dynastic Ur shows a belted hero grasping a pair of human-headed bulls. "The concept of the intertwined hero and human-headed bulls is not fully understood today, but here the image is related to the deceased" (Julian Reade, in: Art of the First Cities, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 2003).
My assumption is that one round-headed animal represents the moon, the other the sun, and their hair time, lunations and months of 30 days respectively, gained by the hero for the dead in the beyond.
Each bull has a beard of four tresses, plus a pair of locks hanging from the ears, in all 6 hair elements, while the hero has again a beard of four tresses, plus three and three large locks on his head, in all 10 hair elements
6 10 6
Additive number sequences may tell us what intervals of time the hero gains from the moon bull and sun bull
10 times 4 (plus 9) 13 22 31 40 years
from the moon bull
6 times 41 (plus 92) 133 225 317 409 lunations
and from the sun bull
6 times 41 (plus 92) 133 225 317 409 months
Longer periods of time
10 times 9 (plus 31) 40 71 102 133 164 195 years
from the moon bull
6 times 92 (plus 317) 409 726 1043 1360 1677 1994 l
and from the sun bull
6 times 92 (plus 317) 409 726 1043 1360 1677 1994 m
10,062 lunations plus 10,062 months of 30 days are 1,640 years minus ten hours, a tiny mistake on such a long period of time.
The magnificient lyre dates from between 2 550 and 2 400 BC. Abur-lim ruled Ebla in 2 520 BC where the same belted hero grasped a human-headed bull. The human-headed bull became Minotaur in Knossos, half bull half man, the hero Theseus, and the additive number sequences became Ariadne's thread.
What is now mythology had once been science at the fore front.
Lascaux in the light of equal unequal
Marie E.P. Knig identified the bull of Lascaux and many other caves as moon bull, the horse as sun horse, the line of descending horses in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery as winter sun, giving way to a pair of antithetic ibices, midwinter symbol (December 21).
Applying the principle of equal unequal we may then see the glorious rotunda as midsummer (June 21), the red mare rising above the ledge as midsummer sun rising above the horizon in the early morning, the magnificent bull by her side as a full moon occurring at the same time,
and the stags before him as Divine Stag whose proud antlers had been worshipped in our summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio. The Divine Stag guarded the entrances to and exits from the Underworld passed by the sun horse and moon bull.
No moon bull in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery, his absence indicating the contrary of the full moon, the empty moon German Leermond.
No Divine Stag either, but an allusion to his wife, the Divine Hind or Hind Woman whose constellation was Orion, winter constellation across the sky from Sagittarius and Scorpio. The Divine Hind called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Orion as constellation of the Divine Hind Woman is indicated by the arcs of the horns and heads of the antithetic ibices, her emblematic animals, midwinter symbol.
The axial gallery connecting the rotunda of midsummer and niche of midwinter is then a year, the pair of lovely 'Chinese' horses in the middle of the axial gallery spring - also they move in clockwise direction, direction of the celestial bodies, heading from the niche of midwinter to the rotunda of midsummer ...
Lascaux in the light of equal unequal (part 2)
A long and fairly straight gangway leads from the rotunda via the diverticule and the nave to the chamber of the felines, one of them attacking an animal. In this case the wide hall of early midsummer morning symbolizes life, and the narrow chamber of the felines the opposite, death.
First we proceeded from the rotunda of midsummer to the niche of midwinter, then to the chamber of the felines. Now we shall go from the rotunda to the apse and shaft.
The ancient entrance to the cave and rotunda has the shape of a left eye socket and frames the composite animal that follows the red mare of midsummer morning. The composite animal has the bearded head of a man, with a pair of lances growing out of his forehead; the mottled hide of a feline; the hind body of a bull; and the swollen belly of a pregnant mare. It conveys a message to aspiring tribal leaders: make a wise use of your weapons, wait patiently and then act in a decided manner like a feline, be strong like a bull, and care for your own like pregnant mare for her foal ...
Now picture a group of aspiring tribal leaders who came from near and far. An arch shaman and an arch shamaness are leading them via the diverticule again to the apse and then the shaft, where they see a strange scene: a birdman falling, a bull wounded, a bird on a pole descending, below them a woolly rhinoceros passing by, already on the left side, where it will disappear. Marie E.P. Knig identified her as goddess of life - of giving life and taking life. Behind her appear six black dots, three on the level of her vagina, three on the level of her anus. The two rows of dots may indicate what happens when a good or a bad tribal leader dies. The soul of a worthy one will be born again in the beyond, the soul of a bad one will be dropped. Michael Rappenglck associated the birdman with Cygnus and Deneb, the bull with Lyra and Vega, and the bird on a pole with Aquila and Atair. We may then conclude that a good birdman, tribal leader from the Guyenne, will be born again in the region of Deneb; a good bull (man), tribal leader from the French Alps and the Lower Rhone Valley, in the region of Vega; and a good bird on a pole (man), tribal leader from the Pyrnes and northern Spain, in the region of Aquila - the three bright stars being the Summer Triangle ...
Orion and Ophiuchus (part 1)
The Divine Hind or Hind Woman CER -: I -: called life into existence, also moon bulls, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months (Altamira). Her constellation was ORE EON Orion, she on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the heavenly river or lake CA LAK overformed in Galaxy 'Milky Way'. The moon bulls waiting to go on their heavenly mission were present in Aldebaran of Taurus 'Bull', from TOR for bull in motion (taurus an universal word, King's evidence for Saul Lvy). Her emblematic animals were a pair of antithetic ibices (Lascaux), in Asia Minor also a pair of antithetic mountain goats, midwinter symbol according to Marie E.P. Knig.
Her husband was the Divine Stag CER KOS who guarded the fiery exits from and entrances to the Underworld, traversed by the sun horse and moon bull. His proud antlers were seen in our summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio, across the sky from the winter constellation of Orion. (A couple of Divine Stags with very large antlers can be seen before the red mare of the rising midsummer sun and the white bull of a full moon occurring at the same time in the rotunda of Lascaux).
The Divine Hind Woman was the patron of shamanesses. Her husband the Divine Stag was the patron of shamans (Cernunnos wearing stag antlers on the silver cauldron from Gundestrup). And Ophiuchus the Serpent-Bearer, between Sagittarius and Scorpio, also a summer constellation across the sky from Orion, would have been the Divine Scribe, patron of scribes, especially of those responsible for the distribution of water along irrigation channels in Sumer and Akkad, channels that were symbolized by a snake already more than eleven thousand years ago on a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar in northern Syria, close to the Euphrates and the Anatolian border, belonging to the Gbekli Tepe region.
The emblematic animal of the Sumerian water god Ea was a goat-fish. On a seal impression from Assur, Ea is represented by a pair of antithetic goat-fish that evoke midwinter and allow to postulate Orion as constellation of Sumerian Ea and Akkadian Enki (the same god), while Ophiuchus would have been the Divine Scribe in the sense explained above.
Picture midnight on the spring equinox (March 21) some four thousand years ago in Sumer. The bright band of the Milky Way covers the northern half of the horizon, all the way from due west, where Orion Ea just sank below the horizon, via north to due east where Ophiuchus the Serpent-Bearer rises, Divine Scribe and patron of the scribes on earth who were responsible for the distribution of the most precious good water along the irrigation channels that were symbolized by a snake, the serpent held by Ophiuchus.
Next time: Ea on a seal impression from Uruk, around 2 200 BC
Orion and Ophiuchus (part 2)
The Babylonian world map from around 700 BC, known from a younger copy on a clay tablet, shows the cosmos in form of a star of seven points: Babylon near the center of the earth in the shape of a disc surrounded by the ring of the Bitter River that has an equivalent in Greek Okeanos, the stream that flew around the earth, from AC EON NOS, expanse of land with water AC shore EON mind NOS, the shore land and water along the shore of the world (island) personified by a man-serpent-fish. Beyond the ring of the Bitter River are the seven realms of paradise (triangles, points of the star), beyond Okeanos was the Elysium of the happy souls.
Now for a seal impression from Uruk, probably around 2 200 or 2 100 BC, "a masterpiece of exquisite detail" (Cyrus H. Gordon). The water god Ea on his throne is framed by the standing rectangle of a shrine representing the world of the four cardinal directions. From his shoulders emerge the streams Euphrates and Tigris. Around the shrine are undulating lines, on all four sides (cardinal directions), ending in small curcls or rings, in all seven curls or rings, 2 and 2 and 2 and 1, corresponding to the seven triangles of paradise. The wavy lines ending in curls resemble open papyrus scrolls or leather rolls, which were known to Sumerian scribes from Egypt (for the exchange of symbols between Egypt and Sumer already in the early days of writing (see Gunter Dreyer).
We have then a remarkable chain of equations: the ring of the Bitter River, Greek Okeanos, has an analog in the work and mind of scribes and outstanding early scholars who encompassed the world and whose patron was the Divine Scribe Ophiuchus the Serpent-Bearer, patron of scribes on earth, especially of those who cared for the distribution of the precious good water along the irrigation channels that were symbolized by a snake already on a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar in the region of the Gbekli Tepe, more than eleven thousand years ago. Ophiuchus appears as a ring of stars close to the bright band of the Milky Way, a ring like the small rings of the wavy lines around the shrine of Ea whose constellation was Orion.
Orion and Ophiuchus (part 3)
My messages on Orion and Ophiuchus are inspired by a medieval Arabic dictionary named for Okeanos, and by an alternative Greek cosmogony that made Rhea entrust Hera to Okeanos. Hera, in my opinion, descended from the Divine Hind Woman CER -: I -: whose constellation was Orion, and Rhea from REO meaning river, while Okeanos, I believe, had his constellation in Ophiuchus.
Where do the names of the Sumerian Ea and Akkadian Enki, both the same earth and water god, come from?
AC CA named the Gbekli Tepe as hill where earth AC and sky CA are meeting, or where they had been separated from each other in the act of creation. AC CA is present in the name of the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny, earth AC under the sky CA, in the name of the Egyptian earth god Aker, in Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' English Eve, and via inverse CA AC in the name of the Greek earth goddess Gaia, under the sky CA the earth AC.
Water was obtained via an exchange between earth and sky. Prayers for rain and the smoke of sacrificial fires imploring rain were symbolized by snakes heading upward; falling rain rewarding the prayers and sacrificial fires, filling water holes and river beds, was symbolized by snakes heading downward; rivers were symbolized by snakes undulating horizontally; and irrigation channels by thin snakes undulating horizontally (on a stone tablet from Jerf el-Ahmar, more than 11,000 years old). AC CA in the water aspect generated Latin aqua and Spanish aua for water. I see the names of Sumerian Ea and Akkadian Enki in the same context
AC CA Enki
AC CA aqua aua Ea
The sacred Du-Ku mountain of Sumerian etymology, where the early deities came from, was identified as the Gbekli Tepe by Klaus Schmidt. From the Magdalenian perspective it would have been the hill of the able ones DhAG dingir dei deae theoi theae. The name Akkad may derive from AC CA DhAG, Enki is able
Enki is able. We see him in Orion during winter
when rain falls in Mesopotamia. In summer
Ophiuchus takes over, patron of scribes,
especially of those who wisely regulate the most
precious good water along the irrigation channels
that we symbolize by a serpent. Ophiuchus the
Serpent-Bearer takes care of the dry summer half
of the year, until AC CA DhAG or able Enki returns.
Orion and Ophiuchus (part 4)
The Sumerian sun god in his shrine on a well known relief holds a rope that forms a loop and has an analogon in the Egyptian cartouche that contains two names of a pharaoh while the rope symbolizes the trajectory of the sun, and the inside of the loop 'everything within the trajectory of the sun'.
Sun and moon and planets traveled along the h' channel, identified as the swaying band of the ecliptic by Rolf Krauss. Another waterway was the band of the Milky Way, and yet another the stream of the ocean flowing around the disc of the Earth, the two coinciding in the band of the Milky Way that covered the northern half of the horizon on midnight of the spring equinox about four thousand years ago.
The Egyptian cartouche contains hieroglyphs within the loop of the rope, so it may not only represent the h' channel and what is within the trajectory of the sun, but also the stream surrounding the world, and the mind of a great scribe and scholar encompassing all of the world, and thus the cartouche might be a further reference to Ophiuchus as constellation of the Divine Scribe and patron of scribes on Earth.
In Dynastic Egypt, Orion was the constellation of Osiris, and Sirius the star of his wife Isis (Rolf Krauss et al.). The heliacal return of Sirius around midsummer announced the former annual flooding of the Nile that was symbolized by an erection of Osiris, while the Nilometer symbolized his phallus, meaning that Orion was connected with water also in Egypt, in a different way than in Sumer and Akkad where Orion would have been the constellation of the earth and water god Ea and Enki respectively.
Also the Sumerian loop of rope may have had a multiple meaning: the world within the trajectory of the sun and moon and planets; the Earth surrounded by the stream of the ocean; and the world encompassed by the mind of a great scribe and scholar whose heavenly patron would
have been Ophiuchus the Divine Scribe.
Cernunnos the stag man on the silver cauldron from Gundestrup, Denmark, is holding a torque in his right hand, symbol of the trajectory of the sun, and a snake forming a loop in his left hand. The famous vessel was made by Celts in Turkey (Galata), perhaps under the influence of
Mesopotamia. A loop as reminder of the Serpent-Bearer Ophiuchus might have been an emblem of scribes and scholars and druids in wide parts of the ancient world. Sumer had Ophiuchus in form of a Sitting God suiting a scribe. In Babylon, Ophiuchus was named for the minister Nirah, perhaps a great scholar?
Human Brain Project again (part 1)
450 neurologists from all over Europe signed an open letter saying the Human Brain Project is a veiled IT project marginalizing neurology. One of them declared on television the claim of modelling the entire human brain must make one blush with shame.
That was my reaction when I first read of the Blue Brain Project, as it was called by then (no idea why, perhaps in reference to the blue sparks of electricity that replace the invisible spark between the fingers of God and the hand of Adam in the famous fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel at Rome? A physician recognizedthe formation of God and the cherubs as a depiction of the human brain).
The successful mechanical paradigm led to the clockwork universe, and to animals being mere automata, unable of feeling. Now the sucessful IT branch claims to be able to model the human brain one to one. What hubris.
In the next messages I will show that our brains are way way more complex than present-day technology, and will do so on the basis of biology and my general definition of language.
Human Brain Project again (part 2)
Years ago I learned from a university lesson that the human brain contains one hundred billion neurons, each of them connected with one thousand other neurons - a high complexity corresponding to a space of twelve dimensions. Meanwhile I read that the human brain contains between one and two hundred billion neurons, and each of them is connected with between one and ten thousand other neurons. This would heighten the virtual dimensions of our mind.
Moreover, each neuron contains the whole genome including epigenetics.
Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another -- and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs (basic definition from 1974/75). Body cells communicate by exchanging molecules, ions, and photons. Our body contains ten times more bacteria than cells, and also the bacteria communicate, with each other, and with our cells, we may assume. Furthermore I believe in communications between genome, body and mind. We depend on our genes as our enablers, while the genes depend on us, their host. Body and mind depend on each other. Some time ago I read that signals from the body and brain reach the epigenome within two minutes. By which I mean to say that our mental processes are way more complex than even our most advanced electronical circuits.
Human Brain Project again (part 3)
In a reliable scientific radio program I heard that only 85 per cent of the human genome have been decoded. Among the very difficult remaining 15 per cent are highly important sections. And if you give the same DNA to three laboratories you get three different results.
The hope was that once we decoded the genome we will understand life. But then came the epigenome, a new challenge and promise – perhaps the mediator between mind and body?
Decoding the DNA was peanuts compared to the Proteome Project. I believe that proteins are one more element in biological computing, solving certain problems via molecular models.
And what about quantum computing? Roger Penrose claims that quantum processes play a role in theworkings of our brain.
All in all we can say that our mental activities are way more complex than we can hope to emulate even with our most advanced electronical devices.
Personally I believe that we will never assemble an artificial brain, a real copy of the human brain. Yet in trying to do so we will certainly find new ways of expanding our senses and mental capacities. A good consolation prize instead of the big prize nobody can win.
English fur (PIE logic and Magdalenian logic)
Proto-Indo-European follows a linear logic: words are being traced back to so-called roots. Magdalenian proceeds forward in time, considers groups of words, is concerned about both phonetic and semantic branching, relies on the physiology of speaking, applies a web logic that includes inverse forms, permutations, lateral associations, oscillations within the verbal morphospace (a loan from evolutionary biology), even attractors and adoptions.
PIE logic leads to homonyms like *bher- and *bher- and *bher- and *bher- and *bher- and *bher- of six different meanings whereas Magdalenian proposes BIR meaning fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed (a particular meaningimposed by the meme of the permutation group), a word of very many derivatives, among them the above six homonyms *bher-. Close derivatives are bear as the furry one, also Greek phero English to bear (a fur bag) and wear (a fur coat), Greek byrsa 'hide, fur, leather' and Latin pella German Fell Pelz English pelt and later wool, then French bourse English purse. By and by the original BIR was absorbed by plenty derivatives, but regained as fur via the adoption of *pad- *Fodra fourrer 'to line with fur'. This adoption was effected by the still unconsciously present BIR as an attractor. And we can't really exclude a possibility of a close form of BIR surviving in some remote glen and coming to life again by the contact with fourrer.
The logic of classical physics doesn't hold anmyore if one approaches the speed of light or goes down to the scale of electrons. Relativity theory and quantum dynamics contradict in some cases the paradigm of mechanical determinism. Also Magdalenian, proceeding forward in time, partly contradicts PIE that always looks backward in time. Change the perspective and you may discover new aspects, even a new logic, as I did in the more than nine years of my Paleo-linguistic experiment.
ÔDingbatÕ gave a link to the declaration of the human rights in many languages, and asked for the Magdalenian version.
I don't know about human rights in the Ice Age, but I know for sure that there was a sense of moral and ethics, from the Lascaux cave and other caves and from the Gbekli Tepe that immediately followed the Ice Age. When you entered the Lascaux cave via the ancient entrance that was shaped like the left eye socket you saw the mixed animal: head of a bearded man, a pair of lances growing as horns from the forehead; mottled hide of a feline; hind body of a bull; swollen belly of a pregnant mare. This was, I believe, the catechism for a tribal leader: make good use of your weapons (lances growing as horns from the forehead); wait patiently and then act in a decided manner as a feline; be strong as a bull; and care for your own as a mare for her foal ...
GER SAP )EI TAC MUC CRA AMA CED
What if a tribal leader didn't obey these rules? Look at the numerous hand negatives on cave walls. They claimed, I believe, a place in the beyond, a second life in the sky (more precisely in the region of the Summer Triangle, Deneb and Vega and Atair). Among them are hand negatives that were scratched out, in my opinion indicating a bad tribal leader who was denied a second life in the beyond. So there was a sense of right and wrong, and an obligation to treat people right - swollen belly of the pregnant mare, care for your own as a mare for her foal.
truth, analogies, and creativity (part 1)
What is the truth? Let me answer this question in the light of the Ice Age language I call Magdalenian.
AD means toward, inverse DA away from. RAG named the line of head and back of an animal in cave art, strongly evocative of the whole animal (Leroy Gourhan). RAG has many derivatives among them Greek rhakos 'back, mountain ridge' Old English ryc 'back' German Rcken 'back' Bergrcken 'mountain ridge' ragen 'to tower, loom' recht 'right, fine, well' richtig 'right, no mistake' ein Recht 'a right' das Recht 'the law' Regel 'rule' reich ÔrichÕ Reich ÔempireÕ Latin rex 'king' regina 'queen' Sanskrit raj 'king' - a king stands or sits upright, on an elevation or a throne, making himself tall, wearing a crown or another headgear, towering above the people, declaring what is right and what is wrong, making or even personifying the law ...
AD RAG toward what is right
DA RAG away from what is right
DA RAG has a derivative in German Trug 'illusion' while AD RAG has derivatives in German treu 'faithful' and English true.
Toward what is right - I find this a good definition of the truth that we approach but never really reach and own, gaining ever more knoledge but never complete knowledge. An example is the number pi. We calculate ever more digits of the decimal fraction of pi but we won't ever come to an end - not even a library the size of the universe, containing only books on pi, could render the infinite sequence. We know that pi has a fixed value, but we can only approximate it, making the space between the upper and lower limit smaller and smaller. We know that pi is neither rational nor algebraic irrational but transcendent (Ludolf) and that there is a mysterious connection to the primes (Euler) but we don't recognize a pattern in the sequence of digits. We know a lot, ever more, but with every question we answer arise more questions. We know that we don't know everything, and never will. This, in itself,is a piece of truth, formulated in mathematical terms by Gdel.
truth, analogies, and creativity (part 2)
Analogies are essential in language and reasoning.
Picture that we lived in a geometric world of round forms - visible and invisible ones - but were only able to draw straight lines. How could we render the round shapes? By drawing suggestive tangents. Three tangents define a circle, the simplest round form. Other round shapes require more tangents. In our real world, these tangents are analogies, tangential equations, for example the proverb
a rolling stone gathers no moss
meaning that an active person remains alive and keeps an open mind. A stone is a stone, a person a person, a stone is no person and a person no stone, yet in the case of the proverb a stone and a person become one and the same in the point where the tangent of the analogy touches the 'round form' of how to lead a good and decent life, concern of proverbs.
Analogies are also found in composites
a hill is a hill
a foot a foot
a hill is no foot
and a foot no hill
but what about foothills?
A computer program able to recognize knowledge requires a model of analogies or tangential equations.
truth, analogies, and creativity (part 3)
Galilei: The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics ... God may understand all of nature in mathematical terms, while we can only decipher the first lines on the first page. God may see the world as one and know the truth. For us, living in the world, the one truth breaks apart into at least two perspectives we can't reconcile, neither can we combine them nor can we let go one or the other. Do we have a free will? Or is our life determined by the laws of biology, psychology, sociology, economy, and son on, by the laws we already discovered and by laws that will be discovered in coming centuries and millennia? The pendulum of the scientific opinion swings forth and back and forth again, never coming to a rest. In our judgments we have to consider both perspectives although they contradict each other. God may know the absolute and perfect truth, while our truth falls apart into various religions, philosophies, scientific schools and political programs.
Not even mathematics can be completed and united under one axiomatic system, as Gdel proved. This came as a shock for the mathematical community. Yet it freed logic. Modern mathematics asks for ever more ideas, and rewards them with colorful approaches and theories.
Our fate is confinement, balanced by the joy of participating in the creative adventure of mankind.
Hebrew palal 'pray' (part 1)
Hebrew palal pronounced paw-lal' means to pray, interpose, intervene, roll over, judge, is considered a primitive root used as noun in the Bible, accounts for t'fillin (pair of small boxes containing scriptures, one strapped to the forehead and the other to the left biceps of a praying Jew) and inspires the Magdalenian reading
PAS ) )
have the say )
have the say )
So Abraham prayed unto God
Abraham 'father of peoples' overforms the older Abram (see Genesis 17:5) which I derive from ABA BRA, father ABA right arm BRA - he carries out the will of the heavenly father ABA with his right arm BRA, getting everywhere PAS in Asia Minor, having the say ) in form of a prayer, and having the say ) in form of a judgement, PAS ) ) palal.
The prayer may have been represented by a sign on the forehead, the judgement by a sign on a biceps, indicating the Holy Scriptures that were carried around wherever one went in symbolic form
having the say ) in form of a prayer
and having the say ) in form of a judgment
PAS ) )
Prayer and judgement alternate each other for example in Psalm V by David
1) Give ear to my word, O Lord,
considering my meditation.
2) Hearken unto the voice of my cry,
my King, my God: for unto thee I will pray.
3) My voice shalt thou hear in the morning,
O Lord; in the morning will I direct my prayer
unto thee, and will look up.
4) For thou art not a god that has pleasure
in wickedness: neither shall evil dwell in thee.
5) The foolish shall not stand in thy sight:
thou hatest all workers of inequity.
6) Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing:
the Lord will abhor the bloody and deceitful man.
Prayer: may the Lord listen (1 2 3 ...)
Judgement: may the Lord roll over the wicked (4 5 6 ...)
The sign on the forehead may have been a standing triangle, symbolizing the prayer directed to the Lord above, while the sign on a biceps might have been a hanging triangle, indicating the judgment of the wicked carried out in the name of the Lord, each triangle equilateral, combined in the Star of David ?
Hebrew palal 'pray' (part 2)
As for the triangles, I found the oldest hexagram on a ring from Canaan (can't find it again in my books). The two triangles above each other appear on the curved ivory box from Safadi, Beersheba culture, 3 500 BC, one standing on the Earth (hill, imagine a high priest on the top) touched by a triangle hanging from the sky (God, judging, punishing the wicked, blessing the good). On a Punic stele the body of a supplicant with raised arms forms a perfect geometric triangle. A small clay object from Hazor, time of Solomon, has the head of a bull engraved in the form of a V (hanging triangle), with a pair of eyes. One eye may receive the prayers, the other carry out the judging. Between the horns is a solar disc, referring to Egypt, however, on the disc is engraved a cross that evokes the five places of PAS - here (center), south and north of me, east and west of me (ends of the axes). Othmar Keel assumes that also Jahweh had been worshipped in the guise of a bull, for there was found a figurine of a bronze bull on top of a hill near Samaria. Then there are zigzag lines, omnipresent in early art, with multiple meanings, now also the one of prayer (hills) and judgement (spaces).
As for the pair of signs on forehead and biceps: palal accounts for t'fillin, a pair of small boxes containing scriptures, one strapped to the forehead and the other to the left biceps of a praying Jew. The forerunner of these boxes might well have been painted signs or tattoos (the body of Oetzi from Sardinia who died on the Similaun glacier is covered in tattoos.)
A genuine decipherment opens a window on the past while a pseudo-decipherment is just a window painted on the wall. Same holds for etymologies.
Once again the double formula naming the supreme sky and weather god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age, initially in the guise of a bull
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
I explained this formula many times. It contains the names of many gods, for example ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, also TYR as the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Sseyr on the Phaistos Disc (Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. A short form named Jahwe
ShA É CA
DhAG É CA
as ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG in the sky CA. Jahwe was a strom god, 'rider of clouds', from Mount Seir (evoking TYR Sseyr). Now this double formula may be re-evaluated in the light of palal
prayer addressing the ruler in the sky ShA CA
judging done by the able one in the sky DhAG CA
communication and language
If language is a car, communication is the traffic. Where there is traffic, there are vehicles in motion. Where there is communication, there is language in action, language in the basic sense of my definition from 1974/74: Language is the means of getting help, supportand understanding from those we depend upon in one way or another -- and every means of getting help, support and understanding may be called language, on whatever level of life it occurs ...
Language, in my opinion, is a basic feature of life, and may be considered the intelligence of life: using language we achieve more than if we were all on our own, or the same with less effort and energy.
Word language can be seen as a triangle whose corners are life with needs and wishes; mathematics as logic of building and maintaining, based on the formula a = a ; and art as human measure in a technical world, based on Goethe's world formula and ever turning key: all is equal, all unequal ...
many ways of saying yes (provisional summary)
Humming Mm was marking presence and accounts for French moi English me, French mon ma mes English me mine and similar possessive pronouns in many more languages, also for the appreciative mm 'very fine' and the affirmation mhm.
OC named the right eye, inverse CO an attentive mind. CO OC is present in German guck! dialectal kuck!, imperative of gucken or kucken 'to look' while inverse OC CO became Latin ego Italian io French je English I German ich - French moi and English me are inside the house while French je and English I look out of the window ...
OC is present in Latin oculus 'eye' and in Occitan oc 'yes' (language d'oc). LIC means light and luck. OC LIC became German Augenlicht English eye light, also perhaps medieval Parisian oil 'yes' French oui 'yes' and oeil 'eye' while the plural yeux 'eyes' may derive from OC AY and AY OC and YA OC rolled in one, AY naming the left eye, accounting for Scottish aye 'yes' emphatic aye aye. Inverse YA would have accounted for Gothic ja German Ja 'yes'.
OC AY would have become Scottish och aye, a resigned affirmation, and again a positive affirmation in American okay - taken up from the many Scottish deportees? Another way of how OC AY reached America would have been Siberian tribes traversing the Beringia 13,000 years ago. OC AY might survive in Choctaw okeh 'be it so' mentioned by Woodrow Wilson as origin of okay (second printed edition of the Oxford English Dictionary OED, omitted in the online version).
SAI meaning life, existence, accounts for German sein 'to be' Italian sei 'you are' and si 'yes' and for –si in gea 'yea' si 'be it' Old English gesi New English yes, also for Gothic saihwan German sehen English see (- a different etymology for saihwan sehen see will be proposed later, a shifted derivative of CO OC).
The above ways of saying yes have the same meaning: I am in; I saw it with my own eyes, it is real, it has existence, it is, yes, you can trust me, and I confirm what I say by looking into your eyes - a firm look into each other's eyes would have been an ancient way of saying yes to each other, and still is among lovers.
Latin video 'I see' Italian vedo 'I see' and French voir 'see' derive from PAD for the activity of feet, referring to the rays of light going out from the eyes, perhaps also in the sense of: I went there on my own feet and saw it with my own eyes. PAD may account for Turkish evet 'yes', inverse DAP for the activity of hands, perhaps for Russian da 'yes' in the sense of: I have been there, saw it with my own eyes, and even touched it with my hands, it is real, yes, you can trust me, and as confirmation, I look into your eyes and gently tap on your arm or shoulder. Italian bravo 'well done' may be of the same origin, from BRA for the right arm that is preserved in Italian braccio French bras 'arm' - you did well (with your arms) and I acknowledge it by tapping on your arm, bravo.
Affirmations are based on physiology. NOT for to know is not only present in notice and note but also in nod nodding, inverse TON meaning to make oneself heard.
many ways of saying yes (addendum)
CO SAI, attentive mind CO life existence SAI, may account for *gho gea 'yea' si 'be it' Old English gesi New English yes, and for Italian cosa 'thing' while German Ding and English thing derive from DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able. A thing per se (Ding an sich) in the sense of Kant would then not exist, every thing Italian cosa French chose is what we recognize as unit, with a strong preference for abilities, indicated by DhAG as the word of by far the most varied derivatives. In other words, the Magdalenian mind anticipated the understanding of
reality we find in quantum physics where the viewer is involved, and the subjective understanding of the world is prevented from going astray and becoming mere dream logic by a selection in favour of abilities - every idea or concept or hypothesis or theory that makes us more able prevails over the others.
DhAG accounts for Greek theos thea Latin deus dea (incompatible in Proto-Indo-European, well compatible in Magdalenian) Sumerian dingir English deitiy and divine - the history of religion can also be seen under the aspect of ability, of uniting societies and making them able to collectively emulate the able ones, god and goddesses. Furthermore, DhAG accounts for English think, naming the ability to overcome restrictions including the ones imposed by religions gone wrong, religions forbidding instead of enhancing our abilities and saying yes to life, splendid ability in itself.
Psychoanalysis understands the soul as mirror image of the bodily functions, basically the ability of nourishing oneself, the ability of shedding waste, and the ability of procreating. A good life consists in the abilities to love and work.
Looking at life in the light of the most important Magdalenian word is of anthropological relevance, Magdalenian AD TOR OC OC Mycenaean atoroqo Greek anthropos comparing the human condition to a bull hunter of the Stone Age and ceremonial Minoan bull leaper - toward AD bull in motion TOR right eye OC attentive mind CO, facing the bull in motion with open eyes and focused mind, taking the bull by the horns, coping with fate.
Early word language was embedded in body language from which it emerged (remember the many ways of saying yes), punctuated body language (a toddler can do that with one syllable), and evolved as means of guiding attention, guiding the mobile attention ever better and more precisely.
Magdalenian was flexible, a verb could also be a noun, a noun an adjective, and AD in AD TOR OC OC - toward AD bull in motion TOR right eye OC attentive mind CO, toward the bull in motion with open eyes and focused mind - could also be a verb: face the bull, take him by the horns, cope with fate ... What is now a word (anthropos 'human being') had once been a metaphor for the human condition, a formula.
Centuries of PIE studies with a legion of PIE scholars produced one single short piece of text, Schleicher's tale. Magdalenian, a one-man enterprise, not yet one decade old, has a love formula / a fisherman's lament / a summer song / the speech of a time traveler asking for the hand of a Magdalenian beauty / the four commandments for a tribal leader (translation of the composite animal near the entrance of the Lascaux cave) / and numerous shamanic formulae and double formulae, here the one naming the supreme sky god of the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ruler ShA activity of feet PAD to overcome
in the double sense of rule and give TYR
upward AS sky CA, able DhAG
This formula combines four sentences
The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD up above AS in the sky CA
He overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR
The able one DhAG goes ahead PAD up above AS in the sky CA
He overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR
ShA PAD TYR became Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, DhAG PAD TYR his byname Dis pater. TYR became emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus, and DhAG the genitive of Zeus, Dios. ShA CA DhAG CA became Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir. ShA PAD became Shiva, TYR CA the Durga emanation of his consort. And so on.
PAD for the activity of feet has a comparative form in PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. TYR PAS named the supreme sky god who overcomes everybody everywhere in weather and time - both ruling our lives, and given to us so that we make the best of them. A polished form of TYR PAS became French temps meaning both weather and time. English has TYR PAS time and PAS TYR weather. What are now short words had once been formulae conveying religious and still valid philosophical concepts - make good use of the time you are given.
It was a long way from the simple tools of the Stone Age to the million things we own, from a few words to our rich vocabularies, from saying yes by looking into each other's eyes to a contract formulated by a Boston law firm, and from attracting and directing attention to the elaborate grammar of a modern language.
Magdalenian formula of leading a good life (obligations balanced by rights and freedom)
In the mostly abstract Algonquian mobile art I found a richly varied formula of leading a good life: heed the Great Spirit GADh CA MAN DhAG Gitche Manidoog Manitou, the good one GADh in the sky CA whose right hand MAN is able DhAG, and make a fertile use of the time you are given -- the former indicated by three, the latter by four, and the entire formula by seven visual elements.
A European verbal version could have been
AD means toward. RAG named the line of head and back of an animal in cave art, strongly evocative of the whole animal, as Leroy Gourhan very convincingly demonstrated. Among the many derivatives are Greek rhakos 'back, mountain ridge' Old English ryc 'back' German Rcken 'back' ragen 'to tower, loom' recht richtig 'right' das Recht 'the law' Richter 'judge' ein Recht 'a right' Latin rex 'king' regina 'queen' Sanskrit raj 'king'. AD RAG in the sense of toward AD what is right RAG became German treu 'faithful' and Englich true. DA RAG in the sense of away from DA what is right RAG became German Trug 'illusion' and betrgen 'to cheat, deceive'.
orient yourself toward AD what is right RAG
and you are given rights
BRI means fertile. DOM named a camp, and was widened to the realm of activity and competence in English domain. KOD means tent, hut. Among the many derivatives are words for containment, for example German hten 'to guard', English hood and neighborhood, also German Haut 'skin' confining the body, and the German ending -heit confining something abstract. BRI DOM / KOD has derivatives in English freedom and German Freiheit.
be fertile BRI in your domain DOM
and you are given freedom or liberties
Latin libertas English liberty stems from -: I -: DhAG honoring the Divine Hind or Hind Woman CER -: I -: who called life into existence - out of clefts and niches in the rock - as an able one DhAG. Freeing life from inside rock has become a metaphor for freedom in libertas liberty, while the opposite is a slave sculpted by Michelangelo, only partly modeled, still caught in the marble block.
many ways of saying yes (part 3, web logic)
Some words may have a converging multiple etymology along similar ideas, for example Italian cosa 'thing, matter, affair'
CO SAI cosa cosi (stress on i)
SAI CO sic si
KOD DA *qaud-ta caussa causa cosa
KOD SAI cosa
SAI KOD Sache (German for cosa)
CAP SAI kabsce kafsce (Albanian for cosa)
CO SAI cosa, attentive mind CO life existence SAI, would name something I cognize, recognize and behold, something that has life or existence.
Traditionally, cosa is derived from Latin causa and causa from *caud-ta, a pre-Latin terminus technicus of jurisdiction, a beating as origin of a case. It can also name an object, for example a ring hammered into shape by a gold smith. Pre-Latin *caud has a German cognate in hauen 'beat'. A Bildhauer 'sculptor' hammers away at a piece of wood or a block of marble.
Where does *caud come from? I propose Magdalenian KOD for tent, hut. Building, construction work, involves a lot of hammering. The origin of *caud-ta may have been KOD DA, tent hut KOD from DA, something that comes from building and construction work.
Now hypothetical KOD DA may have been a lateral association to KOD SAI, or an oscillation away from and back to KOD SAI.
KOD has many derivatives, also German hten 'to guard', also German Haut 'skin' as confinement of the body, and the German ending -heit confining something abstract like for example Freiheit 'freedom' or Gesundheit 'health'. Perhaps there was a further origin of Italian cosa in KOD SAI for something guarded within a tent or hut, something that has life or existence? The inverse form SAI KOD may then have accounted for German Sache 'thing, matter, affair', equivalent of Italian cosa.
Albanian has kafsce kabsce as equivalent of cosa, wherein I recognize the vary ancient *KAPA for hand palm finger seize bite eat (Merritt Ruhlen) that became Magdalenian CAP for horse hunting and was widened again in English capture and keep, also in Latin habere German
haben English have (incompatible in PIE, well compatible in Magdalenian)
*KAPA CAP kab kaf SAI sce
CO SAI and KOD SAI and CAP SAI as multiple origins of cosa - in the form of KOD DA oscillating away from and back to KOD SAI - would name something I cognize and behold, store and guard, capture and keep respectively, something that has life or existence ...
We need a web logic beyond linear logic. I guess it will be developed and evolve with a new form of computing based on neuro-physiological chips that are in the making.
(Perhaps quantum entanglement, baffling as it is, avers the fundamental role of web logic?)
dog and hound
Wolves were tamed already 60,000 years ago by women adopting pups. Remains of the oldest known dogs, more than 30,000 years old, were found in a Belgian cave and in the Altai. A large bone was placed between the jaws of the Belgian dog, post mortem, before the cadaveric rigidity set in, apparently honoring a good dog and worthy member of the tribe.
Dogs were able helpers, used for hunting, for guarding the camp, for searching missed persons, and for pulling a load on a travis. We may assume that women breeded and raised and generally cared for them, since women are very good at communicating with animals.
Dogs and hounds would have been named as able ones DhAG in the care of women GYN
DhAG GYN docgena docga dogge dog
GYN DhAG kyn- Hund hound (dog)
(I had DhAG dog and GYN kyn- before. Then I read of the oldest English form docgena.)
Where does bitch 'female dog' come from?
PAD means activity of feet and the comparative form PAS everywhere (in a plain), accounting for Latin bestia English beast and French bÌ»te 'animal' - careful, they walk around and appear anywhere, watch out and listen ...
PIC named a bird. PAC named a horse and possibly other larger animals, Italian vacca French vache 'cow'. PEC named smaller animals, ibex German Steinbock, Latin pecus 'cattle, especially smaller animals like sheep and goats and swine', French biche 'hind'.
English bitch 'female dog' is usually derived from bestia. Considering Old English bicce I propose PEC biche as origin. Also in reference to a dog that passed me by very swiftly on a forest road in the Val de Travers and run down the steep slope as no dog can -- it was an ibex, either a young one with no horns or a female one with short horns I didn't see in the shadow of the fir trees.
etymologies of English soul and Greek psychae
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able is the Magdalenian word of the most varied derivatives (followed by BIR meaning fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed). Life may be seen as a bunch of abilities coordinated by the soul. Magdalenian SAI means life, existence. POL named a fortified settlement, Greek polis 'town' German Bollwerk English bulwark Italian villa 'mansion' French ville 'town' Greek poly 'many'. Inverse LOP names an enveloping hedge or fence or earth wall or wall of stones, English wall deriving from POL, shifting back from the inverse LOP.
Now for the surprising etymology of English soul
SAI POL LOP *saiwalo saiwala sawol soul
SAI POL LOP, life SAI of many POL inside a wall LOP may account for Proto-Germanic *saiwalo Gothic saiwala Old English sawol New English soul, referring to the distribution of abilities in an early town protected by an enveloping wall, say, the ruler in the center, craftsmen in one quarter, artisans along a street, traders around a place, famers close to the gates, guards and soldiers along the wall ... This would be a quite sober etymology of the emotional word soul.
English soul is then a metaphor for the organization of body and mind named via early town building.
The oldest element of European cave art is a red ocher dot in the Altamira cave, recently dated to a high age of some 41,000 years. Red ocher dots have the meaning of SAI for life. Cave walls often represent the sky CA. Red ocher dots on a cave wall claim a second life in the beyond for a worthy soul, SAI CA, life in the sky
SAI CA pSAI CA psychae
- projection of an inner idea of a good life, enabling society by realizing our own abilities.
shamanic soul formula
Maybe the soul was named by a triple formula indicating the origin of life, life on earth, and a second life in the heavenly beyond
for a worthy soul
PIR SAI KAL
BIR SAI POL LOP
BRI SAI CA PAS CA
In the beginning the fire giver PIR GID had the say. She called out to her sister the fur giver BIR GID. This one took her cosmic fur and scooped the primeval hill out of the cosmic sea. PIR GID called out to her sister the fertility giver BRI GID. This one planted the seeds of life SAI. Now PIR GID warmed the earth and made the seeds of life germinate. Plants grew, animals emerged from clefts and niches in the rock, and human beings from caves KAL ...
Divine fire PIR made life SAI emerge from caves KAL
PIR SAI KAL
Warming and protecting fur BIR surrounds the body. In like manner humans lived and live SAI in caves, under an abris, in camps, in temporary and permanent settlements POL enveloped by protecting rock walls, by hedges, fences, earth walls and stone walls LOP, in organized groups, communities or societies, the distribution of abilities within mirroringthe organs in the body and faculties of the mind coordinated by the soul
BIR SAI POL LOP
A second life in the heavenly beyond was claimed by dots and hand impressions on cave walls, especially by red ones. May the fertile one BRI give us a second life SAI in the heavenly beyond CA, may we roam the heavens in our next life as we roam the land in this life, may we get everywhere PAS in the sky CA
BRI SAI CA PAS CA
grammar of many grammars
Freud compared the psyche to an imaginary Rome where all buildings from every epoch were still standing, one in the other. Language is much the same, all phases of language evolution still present in our highly developed word language, accounting for what I call the grammar of many grammars. If you start from verb and noun and other grammatical categories, unwilling to look at language from other vantage points, you are eliminating the early phases that also contribute to word language, for example the phase when verb and noun were not yet separated (and they still are exchangeable to some degree) and when words had not yet emerged from vocalizations (preserved in utterings like Hm and O and many more) and when language was (as it still is) embedded in gestures (a good speech still is gestural, addressing and greeting and even embracing you as if you were a friend) and the basic grammar of attracting and directing attention (that needs no words and grammatical categories at all). Every perspective on language is justified, not only the one based on terms and labels and categories of a specific grammar, not just computer thinking, not just mathematical logic based on the formula a = a but natural thinking based on the wider logic of nature and life, art and language - all is equal, all unequal ...
Gothic saiwala 'soul' and saihwan 'see'
Recently I derived Gothic saiwala 'soul' from SAI POL, life SAI fortified settlement POL, the organization of life or distribution of abilities and professions within a town, mirroring the organs in the body. Gothic saihwan 'see' - above associated with SAI for life, existence, to perceive something with our own eyes and therefore acknowledging its existence – could also go back to another compound, CO OC PAS, attentive mind CO right eye OC everywhere (in a plain) PAS, naming the guards who look for order inside the wall and overlook the plain from the wall of the town, the enveloping wall or palisade called LOP, inverse of POL for a fortified settlement, CO OC alone accounting for Greek skopeo 'I look around' German schauen 'look' sehen 'see' Schau 'show' Sicht 'view', and the full compound CO OC PAS for Gothic saihwan 'see'. The initial sai-s in saiwala and saihwan have then a different origin, one from SAI and the other from CO OC that has another
derivative in German gucken dialectal kucken, imperative kuck! The full meaning of PAS is everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. Picture the guards looking for order inside the town, and watching over the river plain from the wall enveloping the town, toward south and north, east and west.
Phaistos Disc again (part 1) Jahwe on Mount Seir
The Phaistos Disc was deciphered for good by Derk Ohlenroth. Let me begin with a connection to the Bible via the universal sky and weather god of the Mesolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age, in one of many emanations Jahwe 'rider of clouds'.
A big surprise is the Middle Helladic name of Zeus given as flower plus male profile plus ear of grain, phonetic value Ss-Ey-R Sseyr which has a correspondence in Mount Seir, abode of Jahwe, storm and weather and fertility god, also a god of war, the same god as Jupiter and Zeus and Shiva and many other supreme sky and weather gods, consider also the Serri bull of the Hurrites adopted by the Hittites. Also Jupiter was originally a bull; also Zeus appeared in the guise of a bull; the precursor of Shiva on tablets from the Indus Valley has the horns of a buffalo; and at least one representation of Jahwe found on top of a hill near Samaria is a bronze figurine of a bull. Here the Magdalenian double formula invoking the supreme sky and weather god
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ShA ruler rule
PAD activity of feet
TYR to overcome in the double sense of rule and give
emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth)
Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus
DhAG able, good in the sense of able
The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense
of rule and give TYR up above AS in the sky CA
The able one DhAG ...
ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove
DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater, byname of Jupiter
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, also the Armenian sun archer of
the Bronze Age Tyr, also present in Tyros and Syria,
also the English Tir and Norse Tyr
DhAG Dios, genitive of Zeus
ShA CA Shiva
TYR CA Durga, emanation of Shiva's consort
ShA CA DhAG CA Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir
The Phaistos Disc as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth provides the key for understanding the supreme sky and weather god of the Mesolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age, a god named by a universal formula that was fragmented into several seemingly different names, Jahwe one of them, equal of Jupiter and Zeus and Shiva.
ShA ... CA
DhAG ... CA
ruler ShA in the sky CA
able one DhAG in the sky CA
Phaistos Disc again (part 2) Eponymous Tiryns
The Phaistos Disc - a pair of clay discs baked together - shows a rosette in the center of one side or disc, begin of the spiral text, and another one on the margin, begin of the ring text, both deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth, here in my freestyle English
Sseyr is the shining one also when Sseyr is the Lycaian one
whose women give birth to his equal, and if shining Tiryns
resembles the shining god, also I, personifying Tiryns,
resemble the god ...
Marked by the god and lonesome evermore and without hope
for salvation and deprived of a shadow shall return
who tries to enter without permission ...
Derk Ohlenroth believes in a forbidden sanctuary (abaton) while I consider the disc a graphic poem rendering Tiryns emphatic Slryns governed by a man from Lycosoura (near Phigalia in Arcadia) who claims that his god worshipped on Mount Lycaion is the same god as the one worshipped at Tiryns, a shining god mirrored in the shining town he personifies, he, Eponymous Tiryns, guarded and well protected by soldiers in the town, at the gate, and along the wall or palisade that is enforced by the magic power of the archaic banning formula.
The center field shows the rosette Ss, a male profile Ey, and an ear of grain R, together Ss-Ey-R Sseyr. On the cheek of the male profile you can see a double circle in form of an 8 representing Sseyr Sseus Zeus by the upper circle and the king ruling the town in the god's name by the lower circle. The basic organization of the town - king in the center, surrounded by guards along the wall - is mirrored in the round shield of the soldiers: dot in the center for the king, six dots along the circle for the guards along the wall or palisade, Argos eye, emblem of a union of watchful towns in the Argolis, occurring in many variants, most impressive on the forehead, cheeks and chin of the staring plasterhead from Mycenae.
Helladic Tiryns was on the Argivian bay (meanwhile the shore receded by three kilometers) and on the river Manesse (diverted around the mountain east of Tiryns by means of a long dam built in the Late Helladic period of time following a devastating flood - a Herculean task). The rosette in the center of the Tiryns disc evokes the former Round Building from the Early Helladic period of time, a rosette of large blocks at the base of the former tower still extant in situ on the limestone hill of Tiryns. The Round Building may have been a lighthouse. We know that it contained a shrine for the worship of Zeus.
The rosette of eight petals and a small circle in the center, also found on beautiful contemporary Kamares ware from Crete, was an emblem of the Minoan and Helladic Zeus, also a windrose, indicating the supreme sky and weather god, also a world formula, and a calendar. World formula: here and now (small circle), south and north, east and west, below and above, past and future (eight petals). Calendar: a year of 8 long months of 45 days or five Homeric weeks of nine days (eight petals) plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days (small circle in the center), in all 365 and sometimes 366 days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correpsond to 32 lunations or synodic months (mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime).
The same formula was combined with a double calendar in the Sumerian dingir star of eight points: one year of 8 long months of 45 days, plus 5 more days, in all 365 days; and 8 years of 365 days, plus 2 more days, in all 2922 days, rounded average of 8 years and 99 lunations and 5 Venus years.
Phaistos Disc again (part 3) ElaiaÕs grove at Phigalia
Now for the Elaia disc that requires a wider explanation.
The Neolithic civilization of the bird goddess in the Balkans knew large garden sanctuaries with groves and beehives and ovens for baking honey-sweetened bread for the pilgrims. Riders from Central Asia overrun that civilization, remembered in the myth of Poseidon turning into a stallion and chasing Demeter who turned into a mare. One of the garden sanctuaries survived in Arcadia, Elaia's grove at Phigalia, Elaia meaning olive, the goddess an alter ego of Black Demeter Melaina, Demeter turning from a woman into a mare, raped by Poseidon, giving birth to Despoina the Mistress whose taboo name was Nyx, feared by all gods including Zeus, alter ego of the powerful Gaia. Priestesses of Nyx gave oracles in Elaia's grove, and the text on the Elaia disc, again read from the center, tells a visitor how to call forth the goddess. Following Derk Ohlenroth
Enter Elaia's grove, kindle peeled wood (stripped from the bark),
beat the earth round about the smoke rising from the sacrificial
fire, and neigh suddenly like a pair of horses: Aio a! come,
Noble Late 'Night', always born anew by the goddess ...
The signs in the center field show a baking oven as emblem of the bird goddess and her successor Demeter, goddess of cereals, and a wave as emblem of Poseidon, originally the god of rivers. In the entrance field you can see gifts for the goddess: swine that were sacrificed to Demeter; bags of unwashed wool, another gift for Demeter; portable beehives; and wine. The disc is again representing a place, Elaia's grove, again with a couple of guarding soldiers.
Eponymous Tiryns would have been born and raised in Lycosoura and would often have visited Elaia's grove where he learned a lot about planting from the priestesses who gave him twigs of the edible olive and a variety of cereals and some portable beehives when he left for the Argolis where he organized agriculture and averted a famine and was appointed king of Tiryns in honor of his achievements, mainly for introducing the edible olive - in Homer's Odyssey the hero and his wife build their immovable bed around the trunk of the olive tree planted by Odysseus' father Laertes, Lord Laertes the gardener, Homeric version of Eponymous Tiryns and his Middle Helladic dynasty, lineage Zeus – Arkeisios – Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachos.
Phaistos Disc (part 4) lion-wolf-dog-bee-men
Let me render my hypothesis regarding the gold signet ring from a cache at Tiryns in the form of a story or fable.
Eponymous Tiryns had good friends at Phaistos in the fertile Mesara plain of southern Crete, among them a scribe and a goldsmith. He asked them for a pair of gold discs he can wear on his shoulders, one representing Tiryns, the other Elaia's grove at Phigalia. Now Crete in the Middle Minoan / Helladic period of time was a laboratory of early writing. Our scribe solved the task with a pair of graphic poems. He invented a peculiar alphabet of tiny pictures, more pictures than phonemes, for example six different signs for alpha, allowing him to choose the picture fitting best in a given verbal and graphic context. He made two clay discs, each one with a spiral and a ring, one spiral and ring representing Tiryns enclosed by a palisade, the other Elaia's grove at Phigalia, using wooden stamps for the signs. Hereupon the goldsmith used the pair of clay discs as models for a pair of very finely crafted gold discs, in around 1 650 BC, proudly worn on his shoulders by Eponymous Tiryns and then by his successors of the Middle Helladic period of time at Tiryns, by then on the shore of the bay (that later receded) and on the river Manesse (that later, following a devastating flood, had been diverted by a long and high dam around the mountain east of Tiryns, in a Herculean effort of a Late Helladic engineer and his workers).
The founder of the Late Helladic period at Tiryns built a new palace on the limestone hill and honored the Middle Helladic dynasty and the agricultural miracle achieved by Eponymous Tiryns with a large fresco in the throne room, showing Demeter in a rich gown decorated with grains, under a sky of raining grains, behind her Zeus in the guise of an eagle, before her Eponymous Tiryns raising a libation jug in her honor, behind him three successors, all four kings wearing a gold disc on their visible shoulder, between them olive twigs evoking Elaia, goddess of the olive, here in personal union with Demeter, goddess of cereals. The four kings were shown in a funny way: as lion-wolf-dog-bee-men, the lion a regal animal, the wolf indicating Eponymous Tiryns' origin, Lycosoura, lykos meaning wolf, the dog a watchful guard, the bee an emblem of industrious farming life, and as men standing upright ... A Cretan goldsmith in the service of the Argivians made a marvelous copy of the (now long lost) fresco on a gold signet ring he crafted with a crystal lense (as we know them from Troy), rich in detail, although the long diameter of the oval measures no more than 57 millimeters, even the gold discs on the visible shoulders of the four kings were given in excellent definitions allowing strong magnifications, the diameter of the largest spiral on the shoulder of the first king in line, Eponymous Tiryns, just being two millimeters ring.gif ring2.JPG ring3.JPG
The clay discs, baked together, were found in a store room of the old palace at Phaistos, while the gold signet ring was discovered in a cache at Tiryns. The northern parts of the ruins on the limestone hill of Tiryns have not yet been excavated. Maybe there is another cache waiting for a lucky archaeologist? containing the pair of lost gold discs? and other charms that will shed more light on Greece in the making?
Phaistos Disc again (part 5) celebrating agriculture
Entropy increases not only toward the future but also toward the past, meaning we need ever more brain power in piecing together ever fewer and smaller fragments of bygone times.
The Phaistos Disc isn't really a singular object. One of the signs returns on the gold signet ring from a cache at Tiryns, nearly of the same size - what I consider an olive twig.
Black Demeter Melaina, Demeter turning into a horse while being chased by Poseidon in the guise of a stallion, is present in a sign on the disc, a woman with a prolonged face and a growing mane. The peculiar alphabet was also used for inscribing a bronze double axe in the cave of Arkolochori, again deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth
DAeIOYS LO(Y)S(I)A EIMI
I belong to the goddess Lousia
Lousia the Angry One was the Minoan equivalent of Black Demeter Melaina from Phigalia who was raped by Poseidon and in her anger caused a famine.
Lion-wolf-dog-bee-men are widespread in the legacy of the Peloponnese, often shown as a pair planting a tree in between them.
Plantations need rain that was invoked from Dictynna according to the inscription on the altar stone near the palace of Mallia, also deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth
DIKTYNNAI SLAI YEIN
Dictynna was a goddess of mountains and the sea, also, in my opinion, the Minoan triple goddess of vegetation
Britomartis, sowing, spring equinox
Dictynna, summer solstice
Lousia, harvest, fall equinox
(when angry a meagre harvest)
Dictynna, winter solstice
(Dictaean cave, birth of Minoan Zeus)
Then there is the Minoan seal showing Elaia (my interpretation) in a boat with a young olive tree, the bow turning into neck and head of a horse evoking Poseidon in the guise of a stallion, a giant bee flying toward a hive.
Agriculture was the basis of Minoan Crete and of Greece alike. What we now take for granted was by then a great achievement, celebrated for example by the Phaistos Disc that honors the botanical garden of Demeter-Elaia and her priestesses at Phigalia and Lord Laertes the gardener at Tiryns, by then on the Argivian bay, gate to a marvel of early agriculture in the Argolis.
Phaistos Disc again (part 6) from Laertes to Odysseus
Odysseus and Penelope build their immovable bed around the trunk of an olive tree planted by Laertes. This one personifies Middle Helladic Tiryns and the Argolis, Odysseus and Penelope the Argolis and Peloponnese in the time of the Trojan war
PAS LOP Penelope
everywhere PAS enveloping walls LOP
POL LOP PAS Peloponnese
fortified settlements POL
enveloped in walls LOP
CO OC LOP cyclopic wall
attentive mind CO
right eye OC
enveloping wall LOP
This compound names the organization of a fortified settlement, in the center the ruler of the focused mind CO, around him guards of the open eyes, in the town, at the gate, and along the enveloping wall as visualized on the Tiryns disc: the ruler in the name of Sseyr Sseus Zeus in the center field, around him soldiers, in the town, at the gate, and along the enveloping wall or palisade enforced by the magic power of the banning formula. The most famous cyclops was Polyphem, Homeric symbol of Troy, his one eye the acropolis overlooking the river plain, his body downtown Troy VIIa providing protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people. The compound is visualized in the shield of the soldiers on the Phaistos Disc: a central dot for the king surrounded by six dots along the circumference of the circle that signifies the enveloping wall or palisade. A dot surrounded by dots would have been the Argos eye, emblem of a watchful union of towns in the Argolis. You can find the most impressive version of the emblem on forehead, cheeks and chin of the staring plaster head from Mycenae.
TYR PAS Taruwisa Troy
overcomer TYR everywhere PAS
Troy ruling over the Troas
including the Dardanelles or Hellespont
POL LAS Wilusa (W)ilios Ilion
fortified settlement POL mountain LAS
Polyphem resembling more a wooded mountain top
than a man who eats bread (Homer in the Odyssey)
AD DA SAI Odysseus
life SAI along rivers that flow toward AD the sea
while coming from DA hills or mountains
A blocked river can get angry - odyssomai 'to be angry' - and rise above the banks, flood the river plain and devastate the fields. Another fierce warrior was named for a river tsunami, rising water attacking suddenly in the way of a lion
AChI )EI Achilleus Achilles
rising water AChI attacking lion )EI
In the case of Odysseus the metaphorical river was the supply of tin from Central Asia blocked by Troy on the Dardanelles or Hellespont, asking for high tributes, confiscating shiploads, abducting Helen, as it were, beautiful Helen being the Homeric symbol of tin, her white arms tin ingots, and her long glittering robes made by herself the glittering tin ore cassitterite
KAL EN Helen
cave Underworld KAL in EN
she in the cave or mine
Ithaca, home of Laertes and Odysseus, would originally have been far more than a relatively small island - the entire Peloponnese focused in the Argolis
ITA CA Ithaca
young bull ITA sky CA
under the sky of the young Zeus bull
Argolis and Peloponnese in the Helladic period of time
ATI CA Attika
mature bull ATI sky CA
under the sky of the mature Zeus bull
classical Greece forming in the time of the Messenian wars
Telemachos, grandson of Laertes and son of Odysseus and Penelope would personify Greece in the time of the Messenian wars, Homer I of the Iliad living in the time of the first Messenian war, Homer II of the Odyssey in the time of the second Messenian war, both Homers concerned about the coherence of Greece, each one compiling ample bardic material along a narrative into an epic, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
a grammar of many grammars (continuation 1) verbal equations
In 1974/75, when helping a young woman with her Chomsky homework, I formulated a grammar of equations.
The ball is red.
Here you have an easily recognizable equation
the ball - is - red, a red one
You perceive the red color and identify it as a ball. In the sentence the ball comes first, as object you can hold with your hands, and the sensation you behold with your eyes comes second, the red color. Both belong together, ball and color, and so they are equated by the above sentence. Then you can turn the sensation into a property of the object
the red ball
Now for another sentence
The ball rolls.
Turned into an equation
The ball - is - rolling, a rolling one, a-rolling
First you perceive a motion and then you identify it as a ball that rolls. In the sentence you begin with the object you can or could hold in your hands, the ball, and let follow the motion you couldn't possibly hold but can perceive with your eyes. Then again you can turn the latter into a property of the first
the rolling ball
A further sentence
The sky is blue.
Turned into an equation
the sky - is - blue, a blue one
The sky isn't really an object, has no physical reality, however, it is a projection of something real, the ceiling of a cave, the canopy of a tent, or the vault of a building, and so it comes first in the sentence, while the sensation of the blue color comes second, and can again be turned into a property of the first
the blue sky
One more sentence
The sun rises.
Turned into an equation
the sun - is - rising, a rising one
The sun, a celestial body, perceived as a tiny disc, with our modern knowledge as a huge fiery ball, is an object and comes first, the perceived motion of rising second, and can again be given as property
the rising sun
a grammar of many grammars (continuation 2) a song line
Sentences are equations, rarely single equations, generally conglomerates of explicit and implicit equations.
A line from a song by Bob Dylan (Tomorrow Is A Long Time)
There's beauty in the silver-singing river
there - is - beauty
'There' names or indicates a place we can see, remember, visit, imagine, a place of beauty, a beautiful place.
the beauty - is - in the river that gleams like silver in the sunshine or perhaps moonlight
the river gleaming like silver in the sunshine or moonlight - is - one that makes you wanna sing
that river - is - widening to a symbol of life including the young singer and poet
his melody - is now, for a brief but intense moment - a part of the river widened to a symbol of life,
a part of the beautiful river gleaming in the sunshine or moonlight, a part of the silver-singing river ...
I imagine Robert Zimmerman as teenager on a river bank, watching the river flow, delighted by the gleaming surface of the water and the reflexes playing on the wavelets, accompanying them on his guitar, painting the river in music, as it were, humming, forming words and lines of a song ... This may be his method of composing a song and preparing his lyrics - playing a landscape, a flowing river, a hillside blooming crazy, but also the howling winds of the north country side, and the freight trains of the iron range under the red sky (listen to the Widmark tapes), and if you can render a landscape on a guitar you can also render a situation and people.
Some are very good at solving mathematical equations, others at solving equations in language, the words falling into place for them (- we are gifted in many ways; my consolation for those who have problems with mathematics).
A grammar of many grammars (continuation 3) painting the sky
When I say 'the sky is blue' I take the sky and paint it blue, and when I say 'the sun rises' I take the sun and make it rise in the mind of my listeners ... Poets can create a world from words. We all use the magic of language for the purpose of shaping the world in the mind of our listeners, in such a way that they (hopefully) can't help understanding and supporting us, like water that can't help following the channels dug by a farmer and irrigating the fields ...
I demonstrated the magic power of words in the kitchen of an older farmhouse, where we sat around the long table: And now the clock will tick ... Normally we don't hear a small regular sound of no importance, yet when I mentioned the round mechanical clock on the wall across the fairly big room, above the sink, next to the window, it was as if cotton wool were removed from the ears and the noise came through - the clock began ticking, as if obeying my word.
This example reveals how the magic works: by attracting and directing the mobile attention along a grammar of its own, in body language, gestures, mimics, glances, visual language, vocalizations and word language alike.
Also magicians play with our attention. Their main skill consists in diverting our attention so that we miss what actually happens. I do the contrary, showing how the verbal magic works, catching your mind with a megalomaniac statement about painting the sky blue and making the sun rise, then providing my explanation – attracting and directing your attention in a case of elaborate word language.
The authors of the Bible knew about word magic. "And God said, Let there be light: and there was light" (Genesis 1:3), "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John 1:1). Adam and Eve were made in the image of God. Their language kept a glimmer of the divine power that created the world.
A grammar of many grammars (continuation 4) soul and language
Word language evolved from vocalizations in animals, requested by all the many things we fabricate, use and own. The more things we have the more words we need. Information technology alone gave rise to some 20,000 English words and terms,
We hold a cup in our hands and form a word in our mouth. What we do and what we say is connected in a physiological manner. When we build a house we transform raw materials like wood, clay, rock, ore, sand, oil, into boards and beams and poles, bricks and tiles, stones and slabs, sheet metal and wire, glass panes, tubes, and many more materials we then add to walls, floors and ceilings, a roof, heard and heating, a system of tubes for the water supply, electric circuits, and everything else needed for / in / around a house, and we do so along the many rules of the many specialized professions involved. In like manner we transform the sounds produced by the vocal chords and formed in the mouth into words we then add to sentences and paragraphs and chapters and a book along the rules of grammar and style, not just one single grammar but a grammar of many grammars, the basic grammar of attracting and directing attention, the grammar of explicit and implicit equations, the inverse grammar of overlapping sets (one of them the set of being), Rupert Ruhstaller's grammar based on functors and arguments, visualized in budding circles and in tension diagrams (the latter gaining sense from word order), Noam Chomsky's generative grammar, Dan Everett's grammar of languages like Piraha, without recursion (according to a recent MIT study), and many more grammars that have not yet been formulated or never will, and then classical grammar as a fragmentary but very practical summary of all grammars rolled in one.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of by far the most varied derivatives. In the light of this (hypothetical) word, life can be seen as a bundle of abilities, coordinated by the soul within a living being, and by language among living beings. Language and soul are then correlated. In the diction of Lacan: the unconscious is organized like a language. Nobody would assume that a psychological equivalent of Chomksy's grammar could explain all of the soul. Nor can his grammar explain all of language. What we need is a grammar of many grammars, including those defying computer logic, formalization, even the conscious mind, accessible to poetic intuition, if at all. A complete grammar in computer compatible terms is an illusion. However, computers can expand aspects of our language skills, already a big task and great promise.
Chauvet cave again (part 1) roaming the sky
Having seen the film Cave Of Forgotten Dreams by Werner Herzog from 2012 on tv I can deepen and consolidate my interpretation of the Chauvet cave on the confluence of the rivers Ardche and Rhone.
The large cave was discovered four days before Christmas 1994 by Jean-Marie Chauvet, Eliette Brunel and Christian Hillaire. Most paintings and drawings date from around 32 000 BP. The superposed ones are by five thousand years younger. A falling rock blocked the original entrance some twenty thousand years ago.
In the spring of 2006 (shortly before Easter, as I recall) one poster Holly asked me in sci.lang for a Magdalenian word that may fit the big domino five in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave. I proposed PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places, Greek pas pan 'all, every' pente penta- 'five'. The additional dot in elevated position may then read CA for sky, together PAS CA meaning everywhere in the sky. The red ocher dots were applied with the palm of a hand. A dot, especially a red one, had the meaning of SAI for life, existence, while cave walls and ceilings often represented the sky CA.
Now on a stalactite in the rear hall you can see a Venus, her legs and large black pubic triangle, by her side a bull, his legs parallel to hers and going over into them, his head covering her womb. In my interpretation (from the early 2000s) the bull (or bull man) represents the supreme tribal leader of the Lower Rhone Valley, here born again by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair in the sky: PAS CA - may the bull man be born again by the goddess in the sky, may he roam the heavens in his next life as he roamed the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
PAS CA Russian Paskha Italian Pasqua French Pques 'Easter'
SAI CA pSAI CA Greek psychae 'soul, butterfly'
There are two red ocher butterflies in the Chauvet cave, one on a wall, another on a hanging rock (that resembles a stalactite), double red ocher dots with a vertical stripe for the body - souls of worthy tribal leaders ascending to the sky on their personal Easter mornings? toward their heavenly abode? where they shall be born again in human shape by the goddess of the Summer Triangle?
Chauvet cave again (part 2) panel of dots
From the sunlit original entrance one saw the panel of red ocher dots applied with the palm of a hand, near the PAS CA inscription, and of the same meaning
PAS SAI CA
everywhere PAS in the sky CA
everywhere PAS life SAI in the sky CA
PAS CA Paskha Pasqua PÌ¢ques
PAS SAI CA P SAI CA psychae
The panel renders PAS for everywhere by the many red ocher dots covering the area, the dots reading SAI for life, and the panel as part of the cave wall symbolizing the sky CA, so the panel, seen from the original entrance, conveys the main message of the Chauvet cave:
may the souls of worthy tribal leaders ascend to the sky
and roam the heavens in their next life
as they roam the land in this life
In the late spring and early summer of 2005 I reconstructed a word KA in the language of the Blombos cave people in South Africa, Middle Stone Age, 75 000 years ago, KA naming what is beyond, in the sky, inside rock, in a well, or deep in ourselves, accessible to a shaman in a trance induced by a special breathing technique. Also the Chauvet cave may have had a multiple function: inside rock, with clefts and niches out of which animals emerge or wherein they disappear, as in the rock art of Southern Africa; the Underworld traversed by the soul of a tribal leader; and the sky a worthy soul will climb and roam in his next life, born again by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair, protecting his tribe from above.
Chauvet cave again (part 3) bear hunter Arthur
The skull of a cave bear was placed on an altar-like stone in the first hall of the Chauvet cave. Fragments of burned carbon around it may indicate a ritual. The skull is looking toward the original entrance from where one saw the panel of red ocher dots. How do the bear and the panel go together?
32,000 years ago the bright and fast moving star Arcturus in Bootes would have been the head of the Herdsman or rather Bear Hunter, the bear having been the Big Dipper seen as animal facing ARC TYR Arcturus Arthur, overcomer TYR of the bear ARC, bear overcomer ARC TYR.
The myth of ARC TYR survived for a long time and became the medieval legend of king Arthur, slayer of the fearsome dragon of Lannion in northern Brittany - remains of the long extinct cave bear had been misinterpreted as dragon skulls and bones (a cave bear was bigger than a grizzly).
In the spring of 2008 I interpreted the main constellations of the northern hemisphere as stations of the adventures of ARC TYR born again in the sky - perhaps performed as shadow dance in the Chauvet cave, accompanied by drums and flutes and chanting, preparing a tribal leader for his next life in the heavenly beyond?
A descendant of this 'opera' could have been the oral epic of AAR RAA CA muruku of the Indus Valley, he of air AAR and light RAA in the sky CA, Golden Boy who brought civilization to the humans, stills of this epic having been represented on Indus tablets.
Chauvet cave again (part 4) Pont d'Arc
The animals drawn and painted in the Chauvet cave might have been of a triple nature, fluctuating between actual animals, human abilities, and cosmic powers, each animal playing a role in the transition of the supreme tribal leader from this life on earth to a second life in the heavenly beyond, all animals partaking in a mythological framework of mostly lost stories and "forgotten dreams" ...
A bull can also be the bull man, a lion the lion man, consider the famous figurine of a man with a lion's head from the Stadel cave, Hohenfels. The red ocher panther of the dotted breast may have been an exemplary hunter - imagine a ceremonial dance before its panel, imploring hunting prowess for ARC TYR in the sky. Bull and horse could also have been cosmic forces manifesting themselves in moon and sun, in lunar and solar cycles of time, consider the beautiful white horse with a sinus line on its flank. The mammoth may have been a symbol of rain. The rhinoceroi, often opposing each other, even fighting, horns clashing, might have symbolized life and death - life and fertility prevailing. Stag and hind may have been the emblematic animals of shamans and shamanesses, consider the hind standing on her hind legs, her head high in the air ...
The animals may have been spirits mediating between the cosmic powers and the human abilities, guiding, challenging, enhancing and obstructing them, while shamans and shamanesses helped the worthy soul of a supreme tribal leader to safely get from this life on earth to a second life in the heavenly beyond, comparable to the beautiful natural bridge overarching the river Ardeche outside the Chauvet cave, in French called Pont d'Arc, bridge of the arc, at the top forming a straight line, below, on the inside, an almost perfect semicircle above the water (when seen from the vantage point chosen in the film).
The emblematic panel of red ocher palm prints and the occasional contour of a finger was made by a man 180 centimeters tall (six feet). Now the same artist made a complex panel of red ocher hand prints (recognizeable as the same man by his slightly distorted little finger of the right hand). Also the hand prints claim a second life for the supreme tribal leader in the heavenly beyond while a semicircle of small red ocher dots invokes both the arc of the natural limestone bridge across the river and the trajectory of a celestial body. To the right side is a red lion, its mouth where the semicircle comes down - swallowing an unworthy soul, protecting a worthy soul? Only a good tribal leader could last among the stars, born again in the sky by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair.
Chauvet cave again (part 5) a lunisolar calendar
The semicircle in the complex panel of the hand prints consists of 12 red ocher dots, plus one weak dot farther down the first dot on the left side. Count 11 days for the weak dot, consider the 12 dots as lunations or synodic months of 30 29 30 29 ... days, and you get a regular year of 365 days
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 sum 365 days
Add 1 leap day every fourth year and you get the following pattern for a long calendar cycle of 8 years, in all 2922 days
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
12 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
12 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29
The first row adds up to 90 days or 3 lunations of 30 days. Add them to the 8 times 12 or 96 lunations and you get 99 lunations for 8 years.
Also the lunisolar clandar of Lascaux used 8 years or 99 lunations, regular years of 365 days plus 2 lap days, in all 2922 days, a regular year laid out as a syncopic square of 365 pebbles, consisting of nine smaller syncopic squares of 41 or 40 pebbles
41 40 41
40 41 40
41 40 41
h i b
g a c
f e d
Eight subsequent calendar periods correspond to eleven lunations counted either in the 30 29 30 mode or in the 29 30 29 mode, for example
a b c d e f g h 41 41 40 41 40 41 40 41 sum 325 days
30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 sum 325 days
In the dingir calendar of Sumer the long period of 2922 days was the rounded average of 8 solar years and 99 lunations and 5 Venus years.
Below the panel of hand prints and semicircle of dots appears a large red ocher rhinoceros whose longer horn runs parallel to an ancient cleft in the rock. This may have been the goddess of giving life, calling moon bulls out of clefts and niches in the rock. Ceremonial dances before the panel would have implored time for the transformed bull man in the beyond. A group of smaller stones was deposited near the base of the panel. Maybe the dancers moved them around on the floor, imitating early mathematicians who laid out calendar patterns with pebbles? (Hoping for a virtual replica of the cave allowing to study the entire panel and surrounding area.)
Chauvet cave again (part 6) approximate timetable
100 000 BP Tribes of Homo sapiens sapiens leave Africa ...
75 000 BP ... camp in Arabia felix, by then a lush paradise ...
60 000 BP ... and reach northern India and the Aran Valley in Nepal, clash of warm south and cold north provokes technical and cultural progress and makes language develop, words like DAI for protected area, SAI for life and CA for sky ??
42 000 BP red ocher hand negatives in Indonesia
41 000 BP oldest element of European cave art, red ocher dot on a wall of Altamira cave in northern Spain, claims a second life in the heavenly beyond, dot for life SAI and cave wall representing sky CA
SAI CA pSAI CA psychae 'soul'
32 000 BP emblematic panel of red ocher hand prints in Chauvet cave, visible from original entrance, inscription in Brunel chamber, Venus and bull on stalactite in rear hall
PAS SAI CA
May the bull man (supreme leader of the Lower Rhone Valley) be born again in the sky by the goddess of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair, may he roam the heavens in his next life as he roams the land in this life, may he get everywhere PAS in the sky CA ...
13 000 BP small red ocher panel in cave Pech Merle showing a hand negative and a cross of five dots, below the cross three more dots, above the cross four more dots, hand on cave wall claiming a second life in the beyond, cross for PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, in all five places (fingers of a hand, dots of the cross, points of an Egyptian star), red ocher dots for SAI meaning life, cave wall and dots above cross for CA meaning sky, dots below cross for AC naming an expanse of land with water
PAS AC Hebrew Pessach - we leave Egypt, cross the border,
Pharaoh's army can't hold us up, we get everywhere PAS
in this expanse of land with water AC
PAS CA Russian Paskha Italian Pasqua French PÌ¢ques 'Easter'
- resurrection of Christ following a very ancient pattern
Chauvet cave again (part 7) Orion goddess
A closer look at the butterfly on a stalactite somewhere in the middle of the Chauvet cave (in a narrow passage, as far as I can tell) reveals a second butterfly, a small one, to the left side below the big one, making me think of Sirius below to the left side of Orion. In the time of Lascaux 17 000 BP onward) and Altamira (large hind and the many bulls 14 500 BP) the constellation of ORE EON Orion was the Divine Hind Woman (Lascaux) or Divine Hind (Altamira), she on the beautiful ORE bank or shore EON of the heavenly CA river lake LAK, together CA LAK overformed by galaxy 'Milky Way'. The Orion goddess or Divine Hind Woman of Lascaux is present ex negative in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery, in between the arcs of horns and heads of the opposing ibices, midwinter symbol according to Marie E.P. Knig who also interpreted the descending horses as winter sun. The glorious rotunda of Lascaux can then be seen as midsummer, the red mare rising above the horizon of the ledge as rising midsummer sun, and the axial gallery as year, the lovely 'Chinese' horses, heading from the niche to the rotunda, as spring, the warming spring sun healing ailments of a long and harsh winter.
Now we have another year indicated in the Chauvet cave, midwinter by the stalactite of Orion and Sirius, midsummer by the stalactite of Venus representing the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair.
Chauvet cave again (part 8) Schwabian 'Eve'
The Ice Age people of the Schwabian Alp in southwestern Germany had connections to the people of the Chauvet cave in the Lower Rhone Valley. The famous lion man from the Stadel cave, Hohenfels, - a male figurine with a lion's head, carved from a mammoth tusk - and the lions drawn and painted in the Chauvet cave resemble each other, showing the same type of head. Now there is a further connection: between the butterfly in the Chauvet cave seen as Orion goddess and the so-called Schawbian 'Eve', a very small mammoth ivory figurine without a head but with a large vulva and enormous breasts - Orion seen as a woman has no head, and the two red ocher dots of the butterfly seen as a woman represent a pair of breasts, the huge breasts of the life giving goddess in her winter emanation of Orion.
'Eve' is a good name for her, from AC CA, earth AC and sky CA. This compound has further derivatives in Hebrew Hawwa 'mother of all life' and in the name of the Indo-European earth goddess akka mentioned by Julius Pokorny while inverse CA AC named the Greek earth goddess Gaia.
Chauvet cave again (part 9) calendar of Aldebaran crawfish
By far the largest animal painted in the Altamira cave is a beautiful hind licking the horns of a small (young) bison under her. She was the Divine Hind who called life into existence, moon bulls into life, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days.
Orion was the constellation of the Divine Hind Woman while the moon bulls waiting to go on their heavenly mission were present in Aldebaran of the Taurus constellation, from TOR for bull in motion.
On a wall near the stalactite of the Orion and Sirius butterflies you can see another butterfly, and on the right side, higher up, a so-called insect which I interpret as a highly abstract river crawfish - the butterfly as Orion woman, winter emanation of the life giving goddess, and the crawfish ideogram as lunar calendar of a regular solar year of 365 days
head 1 day June 21 summer solstice
breast (or back) 10 days
head and breast (or back) together 11 days
antennae May 18 - Jun 15 and Jun 27 - Jul 25 (29 29)
scissors Apr 18 - May 17 and Jul 26 - Aug 24 (30 30)
legs Mar 20 - Apr 17 and Aug 25 - Sep 22 (29 29)
legs Feb 18 - Mar 19 and Sep 23 - Oct 22 (30 30)
legs Jan 20 - Feb 17 and Oct 23 - Nov 20 (29 29)
legs Dec 21 - Jan 19 and Nov 21 - Dec 20 (30 30)
The head of the Aldebaran crawfish marks the summer solstice. Head and breast (or back) are 11 days. The antennae, scissors, and pairs of legs are pairs of lunations, alternately 29 29 and 30 30 days. In all you get 365 days. The feet of the first legs behind the scissors mark the spring equinox, and the feet of the last legs the winter solstice.
And the river of the Aldebaran crawfish is the white ceiling of the Chauvet cave between the stalactites of Orion and the Venus of the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair, stalactites of the life giving goddess in her winter and summer forms.
Chauvet cave again (part 10) Sirius, Antares
Orion was the Divine Hind Woman and Sirius below Orion the abode of shamanesses called SAI CER IAS, life SAI (stag shaman hind) shamaness CER healing IAS.
The Divine Hind (Woman) had a consort in the Divine Stag (Man) whose proud antlers were seen in our summer constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio, across the sky from Orion, while Antares in Scorpio was the abode of shamans in the service of the Divine Stag (Man).
Remember the semicircle of red ocher dots plus one weak dot below the first dot on the left side. The weak dot may be Antares, and the semicircle may indicate the way Antares travels across the night sky.
On a further level of meaning the dots can be read as a year, the weak dot representing a period of eleven days and the semicircle a dozen lunations
11 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 sum 365
And on a third level of meaning the weak dot may again be Antares and the semicircle may indicate the way the moon bulls travel along the ecliptic toward Aldebaran where they once began their heavenly journey, called into life by the Divine Hind (Woman) worshipped in Orion.
Her year was encoded in the Aldebaran crawfish, the head one day, the breast (or back) ten more days, plus a dozen lunations for the antennae and scissors and regular legs
1 10 29 29 30 30 29 29 30 30 29 29 30 30 sum 365
The river of the Aldebaran crawfish was the heavenly CA river lake LAK together CA LAK overformed by galaxy 'Milky Way' ...
Once we understand the very ancient ideograms we can only admire their economy and precision.
completing year ten
The Magdalenian experiment began with calendar reconstructions at the end of 2004
lunisolar calendar of the Gbekli Tepe region, 12 000 BP
and beginning of 2005
amazing lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, 17 000 BP
Now the double calendar of the Chauvet cave
year of Aldebaran crawfish, year of Antares bow, 32 000 BP
completes year ten of my adventure.
Magdalenian is a non-invasive tool of archaeology, reconstructed for the purpose of reading the rich legacy of cave art, rock art and mobile art of the last Ice Age.
My reward and bonus are anthropological insights, for example DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, being the Magdalenian word of by far the most varied derivatives, followed by BIR meaning fur (especially the fur on which a newborn was placed).
In my next series of messages I shall ponder the evolutionary advantage of religion, again in the light of DhAG meaning able.
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 1) car and wagon
The many artificial things we make and use extend body and mind, increasing our abilities. In a car we ran faster and wider than on our legs, and on a wagon we transport more goods than we can possibly carry in our arms.
English car and carry derive from Proto-Indo-European *kers 'to run' whose origin I see in Magdalenian COR for young people (perhaps COR SAI, young people COR life SAI, lively young people) while the meme of the permutation group is the way the young ones behave
- young people run and like fast cars, old people walk and generally prefer safe cars.
DhAG meaning able is the Magdalenian word of the most varied derivatives, among them thing German Ding, Latin facere 'make', also *wegh 'to carry' and *weghnos 'wagon'.
PAD for the activity of feet accounts for foot and boot, also for boat and paddle, then for Italian vettura French voiture 'car'.
PAD vettura and path, COR (SAI) *kers car and course, DhAG *weghnos 'wagon' and *weghyeh 'track road' English way German Weg - vehicules need roads. Most cars are useless without streets and roads and highways.
How much labor went into the building of all the many roads we have today? How many accidents helped develop the safe cars we drive nowadays?
We are the lucky ones who benefit from the labor and suffering of earlier generations.
How many of those who labored and suffered found solace in religion?
Seen that way (as if from outer space) religion is an enabling factor in the civilizatory progress, in evolution beyond the body.
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 2) extended phenotype
Upon reading The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins (new edition from 1989) the way the genes behave reminded me of the Greek gods and goddesses. Near the end of 2004 I wrote a series of messages on this aperÌ¤u, religion as possible extended phenotype, wondering why Dawkins doesn't see the connection between genetics and religion. A reader kindly recommended a book by a neurologist and pediatric from New York (as I recall, unfortunately I forgot his name and the title of the book) wherein the genes are described as enablers. Meanwhile Magdalenian allows to shed new light on this topic.
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, is the Magdalenian word of by far the most varied derivatives. Prominent among them are English deity and divine, Latin deus and Greek theos (incompatible in Proto-Indo-European, well compatible in Magdalenian), Sumerian dingir announcing a deity, and the supreme Irish Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, from DhAG DhAG able able.
Genes are enablers, and deities are able ones. Gods and goddesses fly and make themselves heard everywhere - meanwhile we fly in airplanes and conversate over long distances via telephone, radio, television and Internet, following the example of the deities who are inspiring technological progress, inviting us to expand our abilities beyond biology.
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 3) greater than everything
There is an actual connection between religion and genetics: worshipped ancestors arose to deities while they are still biologically present in our genome.
Gods and goddesses mirror our genes but also nature from which life emerged, meaning we can't realize all the abilities personified by the able ones in terms of technology.
Deities are above us, and so is God. Ra, the supreme god of Ancient Egypt, manifest in the sun, had 100 names while nobody knew the real name. Allah has 99 names but nobody knows the real name, and nobody is allowed to make an image of Allah – mentioning Allah in the form of He His Him invokes a man as a verbal image. 'Allahu akbar' is short for 'Allah is greater than everything' - above any definition, above any proclamation, above any book, just above e v e r y t h i n g .
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 4) human law and divine law
A society needs a practical or human law, and a higher or divine law, both mirroring the the technological complexity of the given society - for example the law of the sultan and the sharia as corrective in the medieval Islamic society. You can't replace the human law by the divine law, nor both levels of the law in a technologically highly complex modern society by a medieval divine law.
In the so-called western civilization the higher law is represented by religions, ethics, philosophy, hermeneutics, psychology, sciences and humanities, art as human measure in a technical world, all forms of art including satire, furthermore agnosticism and atheism as guards of transcendence.
We have a right to expose the abuse of religion for political purposes by those who claim to know exactly who God is
We know exactly who God is and what He wants
He wants what we want, He is our mighty henchman
and the contradiction of placing a book that was written and compiled and edited by human beings above nature and life as God's creation.
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 5) prayers can help
Definition of language from 1974/75
Language is the means of getting help, support and understanding
from those we depend upon in one way or another --- and every means
of getting help, support and understanding may be called language,
on whatever level of life it occurs ...
Genes depend on each other (Richard Dawkins). Also genes and body and mind depend on each other - genes on the body for replication, and on the mind that steers the body, body and mind on the genes as enablers, and maybe the mind communicates with the genes via epigenetics?
At age 45 I got a bad medical diagnosis (reading the file on the tray while the doctor left me waiting), feared I must die, and swooned. I was a boy again, with my parents and siblings on a Sunday pleasure walk in the near wood, the sun slanting between the slender trunks of the high fir trees, all very peaceful ... Then I woke up, lying on the floor, surrounded by nurses, the sun slanting betweeen the slender vertical elements of the blinds. The nurses helped me up and gave me a cup of sugared coffee. Then a specialist arrived, and told me that I have two years more. Meanwhile I survived for twenty years, without medication, no recidive.
People in great danger fearing imminent death can see a lovely landscape, as I did in my dream vision lying on a hospital floor, but why was I a boy? Richard Dawkins provides a possible answer. He mentions a certain gene that helps the young body but harms the old one, and wonders whether one could fool that gene into believing the body were still young, and thus prolong life? My body may have done just that: Listen, genes, this body is still young, virtually a boy, has a lot more to do and ideas to develop, so please let him live ...
The vision and strong feeling of peace I still can recall would have helped endorse the internal message, the prayer of my body, as it were.
I wonder if some religious ideas have a similar origin?
evolutionary advantage of religion (part 6) dingua lingua
DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, accounts for Latin deus dea Greek theos thea Sumerian dingir Celtic Dagda, for Latin facere 'make', also for German denken English think, and for Old Latin dingua English tongue, while inverse GADh meaning good accounts for God.
) or )OG for having the say (pronounce the consonant given as arc by curving your tongue, then let the tip of the tong glide along the palate and smack into its wet bed) accounts for Greek logos 'word, reason'
In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God
for Hebrew El and Elohim, and for Arabic Allah, while English Lord preserves the L. Further derivatives are Latin lingua 'tongue' that replaced Old Latin dingua 'tongue', French langue 'tongue' and langage English language.
The case of dingua lingua may reveal that human societies favor the expansion of abilities and language.
What can you gain from taking boys and girls out of school, depriving the young ones of a perspective, banning ideas, forbidding the word, oppressing women, and then compensating for the loss and lack of abilities by endlessly invoking the Able One who has the Say? Form your society along the above etymologies and it will have a better chance. It won't be spared from failure and disaster, but will find resilience in well developed and coordinated abilities, and solace in a humane religion.
Or in religion without religion. Personally I don't believe in a second life in the beyond, but I know that others will be born and live and see the world as I in my best and happiest and most hopeful moments. For the time being I go on with my work, silently honoring people in other parts of the world who can't realize greater talents than mine.