Lascaux 5, Dingir Calendar of Mesopotamia, Revised Lascaux Calendar, Numerals 1-10, Phaistos Disc (expanded version of my second Magdalenian test case deus theos / Zeus versus deus Zeus / theos) – all highly demanding

 

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lascaux.htm / lascaux2.htm / lascaux3.htm / lascaux4.htm / lascaux5.htm

 

 

 

Dingir Calendar of Sumer and Mesopotamia, Revised Lascaux Calendar, Numerals 1 – 10

 

 

1) Dingir calendar of Mesopotamia, deities

 

Klaus Schmidt believes that the Göbekli Tepe was the sacred Du-ku mountain of Sumerian mythology, where the Anuna deities came from. If so, Du-ku may be a further derivative of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, and the same for dingir, Mesopotamian word for a deity, phonetical value an meaning sky, dingir-dingir dingir Anu / An, the sky god Anu or An, lord of the gods whose name could be a polished form of AAR RAA, the sky of air AAR and light RAA personified

 

   AAR RAA    AAR nA    A nA    Anu    An

 

Inanna and Nanna, Sumerian for Venus and the moon, may be generic names meaning: in the sky, from EN AAR RAA, in EN the sky of air AAR and light RAA

 

   EN AAR RAA    EN AAR nA    EN An nA    iN An nA

 

      iNAnnA  /  NAnnA

 

The name of Ishtar, Akkadian Venus, Astarte in the Levant, may go back to AS TYR, up above AS she who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR

 

   AS TYR    ASh TaR    iShTaR  /  AS TaR    ASTaRte

 

Utu was the Sumerian sun god, from RYT TYR, archer RYT overcomer TYR, the overcomer sending out arrows of light, RYT being present for example in Rumantg raz dal suleil 'sun ray', also in English ray and Latin radius and German Rad 'wheel', consider the ancient image of the sun wheel. Bronze Age Armenia worshiped a sun archer by the name of Tir

 

   RYT TYR    YT TY    uTu

 

Shamash was the Akkadian name of the sun god, from ShA MmOS, ruler ShA offspring MmOS, the sun god as son of the ruling couple Anu and Ishtar

 

   ShA MmOS    ShA MaS    ShAMaSh

 

confirming the old assumption that Anu and Ishtar had once been a couple. The name of the Akkadian moon god Sin might go back to Magdalenian GEN for the three days and nights of the young moon

 

   GEN    GiN    siN

 

 

 

2) Dingir calendar, short and a long cycle

 

Sumerian dingir was given as star of eight points or rosette of eight petals. The written sign indicated a god or a goddess. Moreover, it encoded a sacred, liturgical calendar of 8 years of 8 long months. Numbers of a year:

 

   45  45  45  45  3  45  45  45  45  2  days  or  365 days

 

New Year followed the midwinter festival. Four long months of 45 days led to the midsummer festival, 3 days in honor of Anu or An. Then another four long months of 45 days led to the midwinter festival, 2 days in honor of Sumerian Inanna and Akkadian Ishtar. So a year had 365 days. The animals of Inanna / Ishtar were a pair of goats, also ibices. Marie E.P. König identified a pair of opposing ibices or goats as symbol of midwinter. The goats nibbling at a rosette indicate the passing of time, while Ishtar standing on a pair of lying goats indicates that love and fertility overcome even time.

 

A long dingir cycle had 8 years or 2920 days, plus 2 leap days symbolized by a calf or young bull (two horns) or a buck (again two horns) or a bird (two wings). The leap days followed the midwinter festival of year eight. A long dingir cycle had 2922 days and combined 8 solar years with 99 lunar years and 5 Venus years:

 

   2921.9376 days   8 solar years

 

   2923.5283 days   99 lunar years

 

   2921 days   5 Venus years

 

   2922.1553 days   average

 

   2922 days   rounded average, long dingir cycle

 

A rosette of eight petals with a small circle in the center had these meanings: each petal a long month of 45 days, the small circle 5 more days (three days of midsummer and two days of midwinter), all in all a year of 365 days / each petal a year of 365 days, and the small circle 2 leap days, all in all a long dingir cylce of 2922 days.

 

8 rosettes of 8 petals are 64 petals, referring to the Göbekli Tepe definition of the lunar year or lunation or synodic month: 64 lunations correspond to 63 continuous periods of 30 days or 1890 days, which are also 42 continuous periods of 45 days. Definition of the lunation in the numbers of the dingir calendar: 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.

 

 

 

3) Dingir calendar, love and fertility overcoming time

 

Time was a blossom on the tree of life. The passing of time was indicated by a goat nibbling at a rosette (for the sake of symmetry a pair of goats nibbling at one rosette each), while Ishtar in an Assyrian relief standing on her pair of lying goats indicates that love and fertility overcome even time ...

 

The sign of Venus and Ishtar on Babylonian stelae was a star of 8 points, in more explicit form a star of 4 points with a small circle in the center laid over another one that is turned by 45 degrees. A star of 4 points is a cross. A cross read in the very ancient way indicates the number 5: here (small circle in the center), south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places. 5 is the number of Inanna / Ishtar, referring to the 5 Venus years of the long dingir cycle, while the star of 8 points refers to the 8 solar years of the long dingir cycle. A star of 8 points read in the very ancient way might yield a formula for our presence in the world: here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, before my time and in the future ...

 

5 was the number of Inanna / Ishtar, present in a stalk with a fan of five straight long leaves (or perhaps a blossom of five long petals); or in a tree of life with 5 branches, a blossom in form of a dot at the end of each branch; or in a decorative band of a chevron pattern consisting of 5 double streaks; perhaps also in abstract form in decorative patterns occurring 5 or 10 or 15 ... times.

 

 

 

4) Dingir calendar, keeping the world in balance

 

The Mesopotamian seropards – 'leopards' with very long 'serpent'-like necks wound around each other – may be a further visualization of the dingir calendar, the four and four legs indicating the 4 and 4 long months of a year (from midwinter to midsummer, and from midsummer to midwinter), and the 4 and 4 years of the long cycle. The antithetic animals, baring their teeth at each other, may also symbolize the cosmic forces that check each other and thus keep the world in balance. The days are getting brighter toward midsummer, darker toward midwinter. If they were growing brighter and brighter only, we would go blind, and if they were growing darker and darker only, we would be lost in pitch black night. Between bright and dark are the colors of life. The cosmic forces check and balance each other so we can live. (You may consider the seropards an early formulation of the anthropic principle.)

 

The same idea is visualized by the sky god Anu seizing two trees of life, on each one blooming four rosettes (one below, three above), all in all eight rosettes for the eight long months of a year, and the eight years of a long dingir cycle.

 

 

 

5) Dingir calendar, Shamash and Ishtar and Sin

 

At the top of many Babylonian stelae can be seen the emblems of the sun god Shamash, of the Venus goddess Ishtar, and of the moon god Sin, their cycles 8 solar years and 5 Venus years and 99 lunar years - being combined in the long dingir cycle.

 

The emblem of Ishtar has been explained. The one of Shamash is a more elaborate version of the star of 8 points, namely a star of 4 points, with a small circle in the center, overlying a cross of wavy lines turned by 45 degrees. The 8 points represent both the 8 long months of the solar year and the 8 years of the long dingir cycle.

 

The emblem of the moon god Sin is rarely a lying half moon, more often the sliver of the young moon at the bottom of a circle, going along with Magdalenian GEN for the three days of the young moon. The 'sliver' of the young moon can also be represented as a thin leaf on the tree of life.

 

While 5 and multiples may encode the presence of Ishtar in decorative patterns, 8 and multiples the presence of Shamash, the lunar presence may be indicated by the number 3 and multiples.

 

Marie E.P. König provided the key for understanding cave art. She identified the horse as sun horse; the pair of opposing ibices as midwinter symbol, anithetic goats in Asia Minor; and the bull as moon bull, often associated with the number 3, also in Asia Minor, Egypt and the Indus Valley, for example in the form of a bright triangular plate of shell inlaid in the forehead of a bull proteome at the throne of Ishtar in Mari, 3rd millennium BC, indicating the 3 main lunar phases: waxing, being full, waning. My interpretation of the bulls in the rotunda of Lascaux and their ideograms revelad a finer numerical pattern based on the number 3 and multiples: 3 days or nights of the young moon, 6 days or nights of the waxing moon, 9 days or nights of the full moon, 6 days or nights of the waning moon, 3 days or nights of the dying moon, and alternately 3 and 2 days of the empty moon, German Leermond, the short phase between the disappearing old and appearing young moon.

 

 

 

6) Dingir calendar, counting lunations

 

The most ancient algorithm for counting lunations was already known 35,000 years ago in Central Equatorial Africa

 

   30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days

    for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ... lunations

 

   (also 29 30 29 ... days, yielding inferior results)

 

15 lunations counted this way are 443 days, and 17 lunations 502 days (best result provided by the above algorithm). Combine these two values and you obtain the Göbekli Tepe value of the lunation

 

   15 17 15 17 lunations 443 502 443 502 days

 

     64 lunations correspond to 1,890 days

 

Halve the numbers and you obtain the dingir value

 

     32 lunations correspond to 945 days

 

A long month had 45 days. 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunar years or lunations or synodic months; mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime.

 

Consider a longer sequence of 17 and 15 lunations and add up the numbers one by one

 

   17  15  17  15  17

 

   17 lunations   502 days

   32 lunations   945 days  (dingir value)

   49 lunations  1442 days

   64 lunations  1890 days  (Göbekli Tepe value)

   81 lunations  2392 days

 

The Babylonian astronomer Kidinnu (around 380 BC) used the value 29.530594 days for the lunation, and the astronomer Naburi' Annu (by the end of the third century BC) the value 29.530641 days. The average is quite close to 1442 days for 49 lunations

 

   29.530612    1442/49

   29.530618    average Kidinnu and Naburi' Annu

 

Start a number sequence with 502 days for 17 lunations and add repeatedly 1442 days for 49 lunations

 

   502/17  (plus 1442/49)  1949/66  ...  32336/1095

 

   29.530594    32336/1095

   29.530594    Kidinnu's value from around 380 BC

 

Additive number patterns and number sequences were powerful tools of Egyptian and Mesopotamian mathematics.

 

 

 

7) Lascaux calendar, revisited and revised

 

Stunning parallels between the dingir calendar of Mesopotamia and the Magdalenian calendar of Lascaux made me revisit the latter - and discover a silly mistake in my calculations from the early spring of 2005 that mark the begin of my Magdalenian experiment. So here is a new and revised version of the Lascaux calendar.

 

Marie E.P. König interpreted the horse in cave art as sun horse, the male aurochs and bison as moon bull, and the pair of opposing ibices as midwinter, in Asia Minor often replaced by a pair of antithetic goats. The descending horses in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery of Lascaux are the winter sun horse giving way to the pair of opposing ibices,  midwinter symbol, the red mare in the rotunda is the morning sun rising over the horizon of the ledge, and the four magnificient aurochsen in the same rotunda, also dubbed Hall of Bulls, are moon bulls. Going a step further we can see the glorious rotunda as midsummer morning, the axial gallery as year, and the niche at the rear end as midwinter. Name of the winter sun horse CA LAB, sky cold; spring sun horse CA BEL, sky warm, in a longer form CA BEL IAS, the warm spring sun healing the ailments of a long and harsh winter, this horse represented by the lovely 'Chinese’ horses in the axial gallery, heading for the rotunda; and the summer sun horse CA BAL, sky hot. Hear them run

 

  CA LAB    CA LAB    CA LAB    CA LAB    ....

 

  CA BEL    CA BEL    CA BEL    CA BEL    ....

 

  CA BAL    CA BAL    CA BAL    CA BAL    ...

 

CA LAB accounts for gallop and German Klepper, CA BEL IAS for AFelios Helios, the Greek sun god in a wagon drawn by a quadriga of horses, and CA BAL for Spanish caballo, Latin cavallum French cheval.

 

Between the pair of the opposing ibices in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery is a geometric figure, a square, an incomplete grid of 3 by 3 small squares, one the bottom row of 3 small squares indicated. This geometrical figure inspired the following calendar of nine periods of 41 and 40 days:

 

   h  i  b

   g  a  c

   f  e  d

 

   41 40 41

   40 41 40

   41 40 41

 

Begin with period a in the middle of the grid, go to period b at the right upper corner, then proceed clockwise. Period a has 41 days and begins on midsummer (June 21), represented by the rotunda of Lascaux; the subsequent period b has again 41 days, period c 40 days, period d 41 days, period e 40 days, period f 41 days – the three periods d-e-f in the bottom row of the grid are the winter periods, represented by the rear end of the axial gallery and the midwinter niche –, period g 40 days, period h 41 days, period i 40 days, all in all 365 days.

 

Near the pair of opposing ibices is another geometric pattern, a long flat grid suggesting eleven out of twelve lunations of alternately 30 and 29 days

 

  /           /            /            /

  /     /     /            /            /

 

  / 30 29 / 30 29 / 30 29 /

  /    / 30 / 29 30 / 29 30 /    11 lunations 325 days

 

  / 29 30 / 29 30 / 29 30 /

  /    / 29 / 30 29 / 30 29 /    11 lunations 324 days

 

A long period of 8 solar years can be represented like this

 

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

 

but also like this

 

  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h

  i  a  b  c  d  e  f  g

  h  i  a  b  c  d  e  f

  g  h  i  a  b  c  d  e

  f  g  h  i  a  b  c  d

  e  f  g  h  i  a  b  c

  d  e  f  g  h  i  a  b

  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  a

  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i

 

In the first case you have 8 times 365 days, all in all 2920 days. In the second case you have 9 periods of either 325 or 324 days corresponding to 11 lunations calculated by means of the above algorithm. At the end of the eight solar years you have to add 2 leap days, so the long period counts 2922 days that are a pretty good value for 9 long lunar cycles or 99 lunations. We have then a calendar of 8 solar years combined with 99 lunations, ideal start of a full calendar cycle a full moon occurring at midsummer (June 21), as indicated by the white bull by the side of the red mare in the rotunda, before his head a sign of nine marks indicating the full moon according to this pattern: 3 days or nights of the young moon, 6 days or nights of the waxing moon, 9 days or nights of the full moon, 6 days or nights of the waning moon, 3 days or nights of the dying moon, alternately 3 and 2 days or nights of the empty moon, German Leermond, short period between the disappearance of the old and appearance of the young moon.

 

 

 

8) Lascaux calendar, laying out syncopic patterns

 

You don't have to calculate the lunisolar calendar of Lascaux, just lay out what I call syncopic patterns: adjacent lines or rows shifted by half a position (for example the domino five, or five on a die, is a syncopic square of 2 1 2 'eyes').

 

Gather several hundred white and gray pebbles, of the same small size and a nice round form, observe the moon, lay out a line or row of white pebbles for the nights of the first lunation, a syncopic line or row of gray pebbles for the nights of the second lunation, a syncopic line or row of white pebbles for the third lunation, and so on. Your first patterns will be irregular, but by and by you will establish a regular pattern of 30 29 30 ... or 29 30 29 ... pebbles, owing to the lucky coincidence that one lunation is in the middle between 29 and 30 days (29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.9 seconds).

 

Now for the solar year that requires a short lesson on syncopic squares, beginning with the domino five, or five on a die

 

   2 1 2  or  1 2 1

 

     syncopic squares of 5 and 4 pebbles

 

   3 2 3 2 3  or  2 3 2 3 2

 

     syncopic squares of 13 and 12 pebbles

 

   4 3 4 3 4 3 4  or  3 4 3 4 3 4 3

 

     syncopic squares of 25 and 24 pebbles

 

   5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5  or  4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4

 

     syncopic squares of 41 and 40 pebbles

 

and so on. The big syncopic square 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 13 14 contains 365 pebbles, number of days in a regular year, another lucky coincidence, and this big syncopic square is composed of 3 by 3 smaller ones, namely 41 white 40 gray 41 white and 40 gray and 41 white and 40 gray and 41 white and 40 gray and 41 white pebbles, a pretty pattern, whether you lay it out with actual pebbles, or compose it from capitals  O  for white pebbles and arcs  )  for gray pebbles on the screen of your computer, using the fixed font Courier New 11. Or, if you got the patience, you may draw calendar patterns with the help of a graphic program.

 

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O

  O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O

    O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O

  O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O

    O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O

  O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O

    O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O

  O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O

    O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

    )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )

  )   )   )   )   )   O   O   O   O   )   )   )   )   )

 

 

 

9) Lascaux calendar, symbolic life of a moon bull

 

Life of a moon bull, with interwoven parallels to human life, outspoken and tacit

 

GEN --- 3 days or nights of the young moon; genesis, generation. The young moon struggles to survive

 

NGE --- 6 days or nights of the waxing moon; Greek nikae 'victory'. The young moon survived and is on his way to glory

 

GNE --- 9 days or nights of the full moon LUN; the nine days correspond to the nine months of pregnancy, and the filled out circle to the swollen womb of a pregnant woman, BRI GNE pregnant, perhaps also accounting for the female given name Britney, BRI meaning fertile (the aspect of fertility seems to play an important role in the mythological understanding of time, more later). LUN became Latin/Italian luna French lune. The bull of the full moon was CA LUN, of the same build as CA LAB and CA BEL or CA BEL IAS and CA BAL for the sun horse of winter, spring, and summer respectively. CA LUN became Greek selaenae 'moon' and the moon goddess Selaenae (shift from the moon bull to a goddess) while CA BEL IAS became Greek AFelios Helios (shift from the sun mare to a god), the sun god in his wagon pulled across the sky by a quadriga of horses. The still longer CA LUN TRY names the full moon as triumphator in the (night) sky, TRY for triumph being a permutation of TYR for overcomer. CA LUN TRY accounts for Sanskrit candra 'moon', and for our calendar:

 

   CA LUN TRY    CA N dRY    CANdRa

 

   CA LUN TRY    CA LeN dR    CALeNdaR

 

The Roman calendae marked the begin of the year and of each month. We may then assume that early calendars counted full moons. Also the 8-year period of the Lascaux calendar begins ideally with a full moon occurring at midsummer (June 21): the glorious rotunda shows midsummer, the red mare is the sun horse of early midsummer morning, and the lovely aurochs by her side the symbol of the full moon, indicated by the sign of nine marks before his head (three plus three plus three marks)

 

EGN --- 6 days or nights of the waning moon; Latin egens 'poor, indigent'

 

NEG --- 3 days or nights of the old and dying moon; negare, negative, negation

 

ENG --- alternately 3 and 2 days or nights of the invisible moon, German Leermond 'empty moon', the short phase between the passing of the old and appearance of the young moon; anguish, German eng 'narrow'. While the full moon was called LUN, the invisible moon was called NUL, Latin nihil 'nothing', English nul, German Null 'zero'

 

Finding the sliver of the young moon without binoculars and knowing where to look for it is near impossible, so it was a triumph of the Mesopotamian astronomers when they were able to predict where it will appear in the sky, and this might be the reason why the Akkadians called their moon god Sin for the young moon GEN

 

   GEN    GiN    siN

 

 

 

10)  Lascaux calendar, Divine Hind

 

The Divine Hind CER -: I -: or CER LIL (pronounce the sound given as  -:  by touching both lips with the tip of the tongue) called animals into life and moon bulls into existence, thus creating time, lunations or synodic months, or lunar years, periods of 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 29 30 ... days. Here is the beautiful hind from Altamira, licking the horns of a small bison under her  hind1.JPG  The Divine Hind CER -: I -: became Greek Hera, cow-eyed Hera. The compound also became North-West PIE *kerdeh- 'herd, series', while -: I -: alone has many derivatives, among them Celtic loba, the call of a herdsman to his cows, accounting for the locally famous lyoba call of herdsmen in the Swiss canton of Fribourg. Further derivatives are German Liebe English love, German Leben English life, German Leib 'body', Latin libido 'desire', English lip (licking the lips may once have been a way of showing desire and declaring love, can be still be a signal of appetite and lust), Ugaritic dd 'beloved', Phoenician Dido 'loved one', Ukrainian lyalka 'doll', the female given name Lily and the flower lily, German Laub ‘leaves, foliage’, Laube ‘arbor, bower’ indicating arbors built in honor of the goddess who called not only animals but also plants into life and existence. An article in language has a similar function, calling into existence what is named by the subsequent name, so the lip lick -: I -: might account for the English article the, for the Italian articles il lo gli la le, for the French articles le la les, and for the German articles der die das, while the Greek articles ho (male) hoi (plural) hae (female) hai (plural) may perhaps have been derived from SAI for life, existence.

 

(In the Lascaux cave, the Divine Hind in the form of the Orion Woman is present ex negativo between the pair of antithetic ibices in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery, the opposing ibices or ibexes being a midwinter symbol according to Marie E.P. König)

 

 

 

11) Numeral One

 

BIR means fur, especially the fur on which a newborn was placed, a word of very many derivatives, among them bairn for child, a Scottish bir meaning son, while Turkish bir means one – being placed on the fur being the first event in life, event number one, English first being yet another derivative of BIR.

 

Many words for the numeral one might go back to EIS for the one reality behind the many appearances:

 

Greek heis (masculine) hen (feminine)

 

  EIS    hEIS    hEInS    hEn

 

Greek oios 'single, alone'

 

  EIS    EIos    oIoS

 

Greek oinae 'ace on a die'

 

  EIS    oIS    oInS    oInae

 

Latin unus

 

  EIS    EnIS    unuS

 

Old Church Slavonic ino

 

  EIS    InS    Ino

 

Swiss Eis, eine ein en, eini ei e, eis es

 

  EIS    EIn-    EI    ES

 

German Eins, ein eine eines

 

  EIS    EInS    EIn-

 

Gothic ains

 

  EIS    aInS

 

Old Irish oin

 

  EIS    oIS    oIn

 

Old English a:n  ME oon NE one

 

  EIS    aanS    aan    an    oon    one

 

Lithuanian vienas

 

  EIS    vEInS    viEnS    viEna

 

Tocharian B se (masculine) sana (feminine)

 

  EIS    ISe    Se    Sana

 

Sanskrit eka

 

  EIS    EIk    Eka

 

Albanian nje

 

  EIS    EIn    niE    njE    ??

 

 

 

12) Numerals Two and Three

 

As origin of the numeral two I propose DPA meaning ground, floor. Standing on the ground you can look and then walk toward, say, the East, but also to the opposite direction, the West, so you have 2 directions; but then you can also look toward the South and North, so there are 2 plus 2 or 2 by 2 directions; then you can look toward the NE and SE and SW and NE, so there are 2 by 2 by 2 directions; and so on, the numbers always doubling. Avestan dva and Sanskrit dva would be close derivatives of hypothetical DPA.

 

The numeral three would have been derived from TYR meaning to overcome (in the double sense of rule and give), and from the permutation TRI that is present in tri-umph. These words would have named the triple goddess of the Paleolithic era, depicted for example in an abri near Angles-sur-l'Anglin, and the subsequent male trinities of several also modern religions. In temple D on the Göbekli Tepe, temple of creation, the eastern central pillar represents the female trinity of PIR GID and BIR GID and BRI GID, while the western central pillar represents the male trinity of AAR RAA NOS and GIS BAL CA MmOS and AD DA MAN. Arranged in a different way, they define the three dimensions of space: AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA, above in the sky, his consort PIR GID the fire giver in the Underworld below, her fire becoming apparent from time to time in the eruption of a volcano; the fur giver BIR GID in the cold north, her consort GIS BAL CA MmOS, gesture GIS hot BAL sky CA offspring MmOS, the gesturing hotheaded and-blooded son of the sky who became GISh.BIL.GA.MISh Gil-ga-mish Gilgamesh and Baal in the hot south; the fertility giver BRI GID in the east, and her consort AD DA MAN, he who digs channels with his right hand MAN and makes the water flow in a directed manner, toward AD one place while coming from DA another place, AD DA a generic name for a river, this AD DA MAN who became Adam in the east. If we arrange them in a circle around the Göbekli Tepe we have BIR GID in the north, position of 12 o'clock, and GIS BAL CA MmOS in the south, position 6 o'clock; AAR RAA NOS in the position of 2 o'clock, Karacadag, and PIR GID in the one of 8 o'clock, eastern bank of the Euphrates in northern Syria, close to Anatolian border; BRI GID in the position of 4 o'clock, plain of Tigris in northern Syria, and her husband AD DA MAN in the position of 10 o'clock, plain of Adiyaman.

 

(The similarity of AD DA MAN and Adiyaman could be a mere coincidence. Or there could have been an interesting history. Imagine that the plain of Adiyaman was named for AD DA MAN in very ancient times, that the name was abandoned in a more recent era, but survived somewhere in a local region, and resurfaced with a semantic turn. Place names and given names have a tendency to keep their sounds while letting go their meaning, so that a new meaning takes hold. Consider Küssnacht on Lake Lucerne in Switzerland. The Gallo-Roman name was Cossiniacum, the acum – an expanse of land with water AC – owned by one Cossinius. Now the Alemannic tribes who settled in the region preserved the old name in a fairly close phonetical form but gave it a funny semantic twist: Cossini-acum Cossi-niacum Küssnacht ‘Kissing Night’ ...)

 

 

 

13) Numeral Four

 

PIE four is given as *ketwores or *kwetwores (the w following the k in tiny font). There has been a host of attempts to etymologize this word, say Mallory and Adams. Well then, here is another. In *ket- I recognize KOD for tent, hut, and in -wor- BIR meaning fur, so that KOD BIR with the connotation of four would name a tent or hut of four poles, four main poles, covered in hides and furs, and this tent or hut may be a model of the night sky resting on the pillars of West and South and East and North, personified by a furry animal and its legs in the West and South and East and North, and this furry animal would have been a bear, the cosmic bear of the night sky ... The magnificient aurochsen in the rotunda of Lascaux are moon bulls. One of them has a broad black belly line, symbol of the night sky. Hiding therein, painted in shades of a very dark violet, is a bear that would personify the night sky, while a tent or a hut of four (main) poles would have been a model of the cosmic bear of the night sky, covered in reindeer fur but bearing some signs of a bear, four example scratches indicating the paws and claws at the base of each (main) pole, invoking the strength of this animal for protection of the sleepers in the tent or hut, also warmth from the provider of the best fur, thick, longhaired, soft and warm, and a sound sleep from the champion of hibernation ... KOD BIR *ketwores *kwetwores quattuor quatre four -- the four legs of the cosmic bear of the night sky emulated in a tent or hut of four poles and covered in hides and furs.

 

The Egyptian goddess Hathor in her guise of the Heavenly Cow stood on the four horizons. Her name means House of Hathor, house of the Horus falcon whose eyes were moon and sun. Her sign is a falcon in a square, the geometrical emanation of the number four. Hat (He-t) meaning house reminds of KOD for tent, hut, while hor (her) might be a reinterpretation of BIR along the line  KOD BIR  *ketwores  *kwetwores  He-t-her  Hathor. Also the sky goddess Nut arched her body over the world, her toes and fingertips resting on the horizons. May we assume that also the hypothetical cosmic bear of the night sky in the north was a goddess, perhaps even the fur giver BIR GID herself in the guise of a she-bear? Worshipping a bear goddess and calling her Fur Giver would have justified the hunting of bears and other providers of fur, bear and boar and beaver, German Bär Eber Biber, named for their fur BIR. The goddess BIR GID had many guises while being a woman, Magdalenian GYN, inverse NYG meaning night, surviving in Greek nyx and the powerful goddess Nyx, perhaps also in the Egyptian sky goddess Nut who swallowed the evening sun and gave birth to the sun child in the morning, her arms and legs being the four pillars of the heavenly vault or canopy, the four poles of the heavenly tent or hut, Magdalenian KOD preserved in hut and shed and cottage, and the comparative form KOS in house and castle and cosmos.

 

A rather crude and heavily incrusted sculpture from the Göbekli Tepe, now in the archaeological museum at Sanliurfa, shows a bear on a pole holding a human face between the front paws – perhaps BIR GID in her guise of the 'cosmic bear of the night sky' guarding the head of a leader who passed away, so the 'night' in this case is the passage of time between death and the return of the soul from the labyrinth of the Underworld, guided by the fox, while the subsequent ascent to the sky, toward a heavenly abode along the Milky Way, indicated by leaping foxes, was equated to morning and sunrise.

 

 

 

14) Numeral Five

 

PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places, wherefrom Greek pas pan 'all, every' and pente penta- 'five'. Tocharian B pis 'five' and Turkish bes or behsh 'five' are close to PAS. The PIE word *penke *penkwe accounts for Lithuanian penki Sanskrit panca Latin quinque German Fünf English five, also for Greek pente and Tocharian B pis, and for further varieties of the numeral five. The PIE form is suggesting a compound, most probably PAS CA, everywhere PAS sky CA, written as domino five, or five on a die, with an additional dot in upper position, on a wall in the Brunel chamber of the Chauvet cave, some 32,000 years ago, PAS identified by one poster Holly in early 2006 on the base of Magdalenian (made her heart pound, she wrote):

 

   O      O      O  CA

       O

   O      O  PAS

 

What does this mean? The explanation is found via the drawing on a stalactite in the rear hall, showing a Venus (womb vulva legs) and a bison (his head before her womb), the bull man of the Lower Rhone Valley, symbol of the supreme leader, hoping for a second life in the a heavenly abode: May he be born again in the sky, in the region of the Milky Way defined by the Summer Triangle Deneb Vega Atair, and roam the heavens in his next life – get everywhere PAS in the sky CA – as he roams the land in this life ... The meaning of life is enforced by the red dots of the sign, the oldest writing so far, dots and especially red ones having the meaning of SAI for life, existence. PAS CA would account for Russian Paskha Italian Pasqua French Pâques, all meaning Easter, also for Hittite panku 'all, totality', all of the sky, everywhere in the sky, above the earth, overlooking all parts of the world, watching over us, wherever we live and dwell, and then for *penke *penkwe 'five', a numeral we use in talk and calculations every day, so this compound would bridge all the way from the highest religion to daily business.

 

 

 

15) Numeral Six

 

Words for the number six may derive from SAI meaning life, existence, or rather from the emphatic SAI SAI ... SAI was the name of month number six in the hypothetical Late Magdalenian calendar from around 13 000 BP: IAS 36 days / CED 37 days / PhON 36 days / DKO 37 days / PAS 36 days / SAI 37 days, from our July 10 till August 15, warmest time of the year, 'in the summertime, when life is easy' and 'love in the air' / SAP 36 days / OKD 37 days / NOPh 36 days / DEC 37 days. The emphatic SAI SAI would account for six, even in difficult languages, beginning with Avestan xshvash

 

  SAI SAI   xSAI xSAI    xShvAI xShvAI

 

    xShvAI Shv    xShvASh

 

Lithuanian sheshi

 

  SAI SAI    ShAI ShAI    She ShI    SheShi

 

Old Church Slavonic shesti

 

  SAI SAI    ShAI StAI    She StI    SheSti

 

Dialectal Greek ksestriks krithae 'six-rowed barley'

 

  SAI SAI    kSAI SAI    kSe S-    kSeS-

 

Greek heks

 

  SAI SAI    hAI kSAI    he kS    hekS

 

Latin sex

 

  SAI SAI    SAI xSAI    Se x    Sex

 

Sanskrit sas

 

  SAI SAI    SA S    SAS

 

Old Irish se

 

  SAI SAI    se

 

Armenian vec'

 

  SAI SAI   vAI cvAI    ve c'    vec'

 

Tocharian B skas

 

  SAI SAI    SkAI SAI   SkA S    SkAS

 

Albanian gjashte

 

  SAI SAI    xSAI ShtAI    giA Shte    gjAShte

 

New Welsh, Celtic chwech

 

  SAI SAI    chwAI chwAI    chwe ch    chwech

 

 

 

16) Numeral Seven

 

PAS meaning everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, occurs in several important compounds. PAS CA, everywhere in the sky, has been explained. AC PAS, everywhere on earth, accounts for PIE *h1ekwos 'horse', Greek hippos, Latin equus, and the name of the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona – riding on the back of a horse you can get everywhere on earth ... Epona was an alter ego of REO Rhea Rheia, her animals eagle and fowl and dog indicate her sons Zeus and Poseidon and Hades, while her emblem, the ring cross, combines a ring for AC with a cross for PAS. Her son Zeus got his name from TYR, overcomer, as verb to overcome in the double sense of rule and give, emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. TYR PAS, overcomer everywhere, denotes weather and time that overcome everybody everywhere, French temps meaning both weather and time. The inverse of PAS, namely SAP, means everywhere (in space), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, under and above me, all in all seven places, wherefrom words for seven in many languages, also Greek sophia 'wisdom' and Latin sapientia 'world wisdom'. English sap is present in a living tree, in the trunk, up above in the crown, down below in the roots, and in the branches pointing to and in the roots spreading to south and north, east and west. PIE *septm- 'seven' is a polished form of SAP TYR that combines the seven places with the three divine couples of the Göbekli Tepe mythology, the overcomers AAR RAA NOS, mind NOS of the one composed of air AAR and light RAA up above in the sky, his wife the fire giver PIR GID in the Underworld below, her fire becoming apparent from time to time in the eruption of a volcano; the fur giver BIR GID in the cool north, and her husband GIS BAL CA MmOS, gesture GIS hot BAL sky CA offspring MmOS, the gesturing hotheaded and -blooded son of the sky GISh.BIL.GA.MISh Gil-ga-mish Gilgamesh and Baal in the warm south; the fertility giver BRI GID in the east, and her husband AD DA MAN Adam in the west, he who draws channels with his right hand MAN, channels that make the water flow in the way of a river, toward AD one place while coming from DA another place (AD DA being a generic name of a river that flows toward the sea while coming from the hills and mountains). They all come together in the center, in the Göbekli Tepe, hill of creation, in the innermost reality EIS behind all outer realities and single aspects and ever shifting appearances, in the primeval One out of which came everything ...

 

 

 

17) Numerals Eight Nine Ten

 

OKD means ground plan of a tent or hut, wherefrom Greek okto English eight, also octagon (the eight corners indicating the four main poles and the four minor poles of a tent or hut). OKD was month number eight in the Late Magdalenian calendar, October (in our modern calendar month number ten), when the ground for the winter camp was prepared, the tents and huts built. NOPh means snow, Latin nix nivis Greek niphas Old English snaw (long a) New English snow, s-now, accounting for November, month number nine in the Late Magdalenian calendar (in our modern calendar month number eleven), Latin novem 'nine', when the first snow falls and gives the world a new appearance, Latin novus English new, and makes the world go silent, inverse PhON meaning to make noise, Greek phonos 'sound', furthermore the nine places in the familiar pattern: 1) here and now, 2) south of me, 3) north of me, 4) east of me, 5) west of me, 6) under me, 7) above me, 8) in the past, 9) in the future -- summer gone, winter coming, let us face the new season before us and prepare everything so that we can survive the hard winter ... DEC means to behave, in the winter camp, no longer freely roaming the land, but crammed into the narrow space of tents and huts, English decent, month number ten in the Late Magdalenian calendar (in our modern calendar month number twelve), Latin decem 'ten' Greek deka 'ten'.

 

 

 

18) Chinese meanings of the numerals five and two

 

"The Chinese say that five represents wind, and two represents earth, and these ideas are also claimed for the Pythagorean system."  (J. Hager, An Explanation of the Elementary Characters of the Chinese, London 1801) Two representing earth and five wind is rather mysticism than philosophy, opaque instead of lucid. However, Magdalenian DPA and PAS can moor those interpretations of the numerals two and five in what we may call Mesolithic philosophy. DPA means ground, floor. Standing on the ground, you can look in one direction, say, to the east, but then you can also look in the opposite direction, to the west, so you have 2 directions. Then you can also look to the south and north, and now you have 2 plus 2, or 2 by 2 directions. Moreover, you can look to the NE and SW and NW and SE, so that you have 2 by 2 by 2 directions. And so on. Standing on earth you can look in 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 ... directions. The I Ching keeps a memory of this ancient idea, dividing the circle into 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 by 2 equals 64 parts. Magdalenian or rather Aurigniacian PAS means everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me, all in all five places. PAS CA means everywhere in the sky. AC PAS means everywhere on earth, accounting for PIE *h1ekwos 'horse', Greek hippos, Latin equus, and the Gallo-Roman horse goddess Epona - riding on the back of a horse you can get everywhere on earth, quick as the wind ... TYR PAS, overcomer everywhere, denotes weather and time that overcome everybody everywhere, French temps, a polished version of the compound, meaning both weather and time

 

   TYR PAS    Tim PAS    Tem PuS    TemPS

 

Wind is an important element of weather, it blows in all directions, and is connected with time via seasonal storms. TYR as verb means to overcome in the double sense of rule and give. Weather rules the life of a farmer but is also a gift, rain and sunshine make the plants grow and blossom and bear fruit. As for time, it partly rules our life, and partly is given to us in order that we make the best of it – making it bear fruit, now in a metaphorical sense.

 

I consider this a valid insight into the nature of time as we experience it in our life. M-theory, the most advanced scientific theory ever, looks at spacetime from the outside, while we are living within spacetime, a basic dichotomy no less consequential than Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, I dare say. The scientific understanding of time will never really coincide with our experienced time.

 

 

 

 

Phaistos Disc deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth (expanded version of my second Magdalenian test case, deus theos / Zeus versus deus Zeus / theos) – one more important message at the end of Lascaux 5: TYR and DhAG

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 1

 

Meanwhile there are two proofs for the correctness of the Phaistos Disc decipherment by Derk Ohlenroth, an archaeological and a textual one.

 

On top of Mount Lycaion, with a breathtaking view over the Peloponnese, was discovered a Pre-Helladic sanctuary and a seal carved from a precious stone, going along with the begin of the spiral text on the Tiryns Disc: Sseyr (Zeus) is the shining one also when Sseyr (Zeus) is the Lycaian one …

 

Sumerian texts carved in stone announce a deity by a rosette of eight petals, phonetical value dinghir (a word I derive from DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able). The dingir sign in form of a star of eight points, rendered as four wedges crossing each other on clay tablets, was used in wider parts of Mesopotamia including Ebla in Northern Syria where the Minoans came from. The Phaistos Disc was found in a cult chamber of the old palace of Phaistos in the fertile Mesara plain in Southern Central Crete. We may assume that it was designed by a Minoan scribe of Semitic origin who invented nothing less than the first alphabet, however, a most peculiar alphabet serving the purpose of rendering Tiryns and Elaia’s grove at Phigalia at the base of Mount Lycaion as texts and pictures  tiryns.GIF  The result would have been a pair of gold discs worn on the shoulders by Eponymus Tiryns, honored as the gardener Lord Laertes in Homer’s Odyssey, and by his successors  ring.gif  ring2.JPG  ring3.JPG  ring4.JPG  while a clay model of the pair of discs or clay copies of them, baked together, would have been kept in the cult chamber of the old palace at Phaistos, where Luigi Perrier found it on the evening of March 7 1908. Derk Ohlenroth studied the disc for many years, and then, one evening, he had the lucky intuition that the frequent combination of shield and soldier might represent the male Greek ending –OS. The rest was easy. He deciphered both texts within two hours. They are written in an early Greek, and in a peculiar alphabet, the first alphabet we know. As I can say for sure, there is an element of Asia Minor involved, namely the dingir rosette of eight petals, on the Phaistos Disc representing the sharpened sibilant Ss, appearing all in all four times, three times on the Tiryns Disc and once on the Elaia Disc, each time announcing a divine presence: 1) the rosette of eight petals in the center of the Tiryns Disc marks the begin of the name  Ss-Ey-R Sseyr Zeus, 2) the name is repeated near the begin, 3) the rosette marks the begin of the banning formula that covers the margin of the Tiryns Disc,  Ss L G O S  ‘marked by (the god, Sseyr Zeus)’, 4) the rosette occurs as the second sign on the margin of the Elaia Disc,  K Ss Y N O R I S  xynoris, pair of horses’, Poseidon in the guise of a stallion and Demeter Elaia in the guise of a mare. The symbols of Elaia and Poseidon are found in the central field of the Elaia Disc, a baking oven as emblem of the goddess and a river as emblem of the god. The baking oven resembles the one of the bird goddess in the shrine at Sabatinovka, Southern Bug Valley, Moldavia, Early Cucuteni  kirike11.GIF  while a clay plaque in the shape of a loaf of bread with a rectangular spiral surrounded by graceful inscriptions was found near Belgrad, Early Vinca, obvious references to Demeter, goddess of cereals, in Phigalia equated with Elaia, goddess of olives. Poseidon was originally the god of rivers.

 

Years ago I interpreted the rosette of eight petals in the center of the Phaistos Disc as a lunisolar calendar: each petal represents a long month of 45 days, all eight petals a year of 360 days, add 5 and occasionally 6 days for the small circle in the center and you get 365 and sometimes 366 days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic months, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. The same rosette of eight petals is found on beautiful Karames ware in Crete, indicating Zeus and his calendar, while the dingir rosette of Sumer encodes again a similar lunisolar calendar, based on the same definition of the lunation, so the rosettes of eight petals of Sumer and Minos and the Phaistos Disc share one more function, further tighening the knot between Asia Minor and Crete and the Argolis.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 2

 

While wholeheartedly agreeing on the decipherment of the Phaistos Disc by Derk Ohlenroth, and the ones of the inscriptions on a bronze double axe from Arkalochori and the altar stone from Mallia, I propose an alternative archaeological and historical interpretation of the Elaia Disc and Tiryns Disc.

 

In a cache of Tiryns was found a marvel of a gold signet ring, the oval only 52 millimeters long, showing the lion-wolf-dog-bee king raising his libation jug to the seated goddess, her gown covered in grains of wheat, more grains and whole ears of grains in the sky, obviously denoting Demeter, goddess of cereals, behind her the eagle of Zeus, and behind the lion-wolf-dog-bee king further kings in the same attire, his successors, between them olive shoots, a sign also occurring on the Phaistos Disc, and practically of the same size, marking Demeter as the double goddess Demeter Elaia, Elaia meaning olive  ring.gif  whereas the lion is a royal emblem, marking the king, while the wolf and the dog as tamed wolf refer to the origin of Eponymus Tiryns from Lycosoura or Phigalia or another place at the base of Mount Lycaion, Greek lykos ‚wolf’, and finally the bee marks the king as industrious and involved in agriculture … Pausanias tells the story of Demeter Elaia from Phigalia, how she was raped by Poseidon, turned black, therefore Black Demeter Melaina, made the plants wither, caused a famine, and the only one who could placate her was the boy Pan playing his flute … Pausanias also mentions Eponymus Tiryns, but ephemerically. Now we can get more information on him by combining the Phaistos Disc as deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth with the gold signet ring from the cache of Tiryns and the gardener Lord Laertes in Homer’s Odyssey: Eponymus Tiryns, from a town or village at the base of Mount Lycaion, was appointed king of Tiryns. He frequently visited Elaia’s grove at Phigalia, learned from the priestesses about agriculture, how to plant and graft olive trees that bear edible fruits, how important bees are, and how to keep them in portable hives. He would have introduced edible olives in the Argolis (where they would have arrived earlier than hitherto assumed) and thus averted a famine. Homer would have honored him as the gardener Lord Laertes in the Odyssey, as father of Odysseus – this one and his wife Penelope (a pun on the Peloponnese) build their immovable bed, symbol of the eternal Greek civilization, around the trunk of the olive tree planted by Lord Laertes. Eponymus Tiryns would have maintained good relations with Phigalia in Arcadia and Phaistos in Crete, he would have lived in the middle of the seventeenth century BC, the Phaistos Disc dating from around 1650 BC, and his memory would have been kept alive until the end of the Late Helladic period of time, when the ring found in the cache of Tiryns was made, certainly by a very gifted Minoan artisan, perhaps after a fresco in the former palace of Tiryns. The lower part of the citadel on the limestone hill of Tiryns has not yet been excavated, and it would surely be a nice surprise if the pair of hypothetical gold discs should be found there in another cache …

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 3

 

Text on the Tiryns Disc, based on the decipherment by Derk Ohlenroth. Spiral – the king of Middle Helladic Tiryns, who may have come from Lycosoura or Phigalia or another town or village at the base of Mount Lycaion in Arcadia, calls himself by an eponym, Tiryns, identifying himself with the Argivian town of Tiryns, and via shining Tiryns with shining Zeus, in a complex chain of quasi-equations, beginning with the rosette of eight petals in the center: Sseyr (Zeus) is the shining one also when Sseyr (Zeus) is the Lycaian one whose lovers (the ones pregnant from him) bear a child his equal, and if (shining) Slryns (Tiryns) is a godlike town, also I, (Eponymus) Slryns (Tiryns), may be the shining god’s equal … Margin – a banning formula, enforcing the wall and palisade around the acropolis of Tiryns, beginning with the rosette of eight petals: Marked (by the god Sseyr Zeus) and lonely forever and deprived of all hope for salvation and without a shadow shall return who tries to intrude into the sanctuary (Zeus sanctuary in the former Circular Building on top of the limestone hill, expanded over the entire citadel).

 

Eponymus Tiryns declares himself to be a descendant of Zeus, belonging to a lineage that goes back to the supreme god. We can identify him (or rather the Argolis in the Middle Helladic period of time) with Lord Laertes the gardener in Homer’s Odyssey who belongs to the following lineage: Zeus – Arkeisios – Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachus. Expanded lineage: Sseyr Sseus Zeus – Arkeisios – Eponymus Tiryns / Lord Laertes the gardener – Odysseus – Telemachus. Eponymus Tiryns alias Lord Laertes would have cared for the agriculture in the Argolis, frequenting Elaia’s grova at Phigalia and the fertile Mesara plain in southern central Crete, and celebrated his success with a pair of gold discs designed by a Minoan scribe who invented the first alphabet, a peculiar alphabet of 45 signs (as many signs as there are days in the long month), among them six different alphas and five different sigmas including the sharpened sibilant Ss represented by the rosette of eight petals, the surplus of signs allowing to represent Elaia’s grove and the acropolis of Tiryns in visual form: the margin the wall and palisade around it; the spiral the upway; the rosette in the center the rosette of building blocks of the former Circular Building, still extant in situ; the many soldiers guarding the entrance, the wall, and the acropolis, overlooking the plain, the bay (in the Middle Helladic period of time the shoreline, now receeded by some three kilometers, was close to the limestone hill) and the river Manesse (by then passing south of Tiryns, but, having caused several devastating floods, being diverted around the mountain by meansof a high and very long dam in the Late Helladic period, a truly Herculean labor). The Circular Building was erected in the Early Helladic period. It burned down before 2000 BC. A new tower may have been erected over the still extant rosette of building blocks and whitewashed, so that it shone far in the sunlight, earning Tiryns the byname of a godlike town, the equal of shining Sseyr Zeus. Inside the Circular Building was a Zeus sanctuary, discovered during an archaeological campaign. Next to the central rosette on the Tiryns Disc appears a male profile with a tattoo on the cheek, a pair of circles in the shape of an 8, the upper circle representing Zeus, the lower circle the king. The male profile is followed by an ear of grain, symbolizing Demeter and the king’s merits in agriculture honored by Homer’s gardener Lord Laertes.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 4

 

Ss-Ey-R is given as rosette of eight petals, phonetical value Ss, as male profile, phonetical value Ey, and as ear of grain, phonetical value R, together Sseyr, which I derive from Magdalenian TYR meaning overcomer, as verb to overcome in the double sense of rule and give – Magdalenian TYR amphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr Doric Sseus Homeric Zeus. The rosette of eight petals is the equivalent of the Sumerian dingir sign, a word I derive from Magdalenian DhAG emaining able, good in the sense of able. Among the many derivatives are Dios, byname of Zeus, Dis, byname of Jupiter, also Latin dies English day German Tag – the supreme god giving you the day, as it were. The rosette of eight petals can also be seen as a windrose, or as a calendar figure (each petal a long month of 45 days, the small circle in the center 5 and occasionally 6 more days, while 21 continuous periods of 45 days are 945 days and correspond to 32 lunations or synodic months), or, following the Paleolithic pattern, as an ancient world formula; here and now (small circle in the center), east and west of me, south and north of me, under and above me, in the past and in the future (eight petals). The tattoo, a pair of circles in the shape of an 8, the upper circle referring to Zeus, the lower to Eponymus Tiryns, identifies the male profile as divine and human ruler of Tiryns, the god and the king, while the ear of grain reveals them as nourishers of the people. They rule and give, according to the double meaning of TYR, they rule as god and king, and they give, themselves by transmission along the lineage Zeus – Arkeisios – Eponymus Tiryns / Lord Laertes – Odysseus – Telemachus, as nourishers of the people, and by providing security for the dwellers of Tiryns: the king building the wall and palisade, and the god enforcing it from above, as revealed by the banning formula on the Tiryns Disc, a formula of archaic power, still amazing its decipherer Derk Ohlenroth.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 5

 

The Tiryns Disc, as a picture of well guarded Tiryns, is mirrored in the shields of the soldiers: the central dot corresponding to the king next to the rosette in the center, the dots along the circle corresponding to the soldiers and their shields guarding the acropolis, the wall and entrance, looking across the wall and palisade, and the circle corresponding to the wall and palisade. The Magdalenian word for this organization is CO OC LOP, with an attentive mind CO right eye OC enveloping hedge or wall LOP, a word present in Cyclops and cyclopic wall, the most famous Cyclops being Polyphem who resembles more a wooded hill than a man who eats bread, Homeric symbol of Troy, his one eye the acropolis, his body downtown Troy VIIa that provided protected shelter for 5,000 to 10,000 people, his cave the harbor on the Besik Bay, his sheep and goats foreign ships, their milk precious cargo … CO OC LOP has a further derivative in PIE *kwekwlos Sankrit charka English wheel – connect the central dot of the shield with the six dots along the circle and you get the image of a six-spoked wheel. A further connection between an early fortified polis, often of a round form, and a wheel may be a priest on a horse drawn wagon driving along the wall and imploring the help of the god in protecting the town. The banning formula on the margin of the Tiryns Disc may render such a prayer and incantation in the briefest form. A dot surrounded by a circle of dots may have been called the Argos Eye, as this symbol is found on the staring plaster head from Mycenae, one on the forehead, one on the chin, two under the eyes  tirynsa.JPG  tirynsas.GIF

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 6

 

Elaia Disc, text of the spiral and margin, again in my translation, based on the wonderful and most surprising decipherment by Derk Ohlenroth: Enter Elaia’s grove, kindle barked wood, walk around the smoke of the sacrificial fire, beat the ground and neigh suddenly like a pair of horses: Aio ae! hyauax! Shadowy one, come, noble late Night, always born anew by the Goddess!

 

Pilgrims visiting Elaia’s grove and wishing to obtain the oracle of Nyx had to perform a strange ritual: ignite a fire, walk around the smoke, beat the ground, neigh like a pair of horses, and call out on Nyx … Pausanias provides the explanation: Poseidon fell in love with Demeter, she fled him, he turned into a stallion, she turned into a mare, but he catched up with her, and raped her. She turned black, became Black Demeter Melaina, caused a famine, and the only one who could placate her was the boy Pan playing his flute, whereupon she turned back into a woman, made the plants grow again and bear fruit, and gave birth to a daughter called Nyx ‘Night’, which, however, was a secret name, only for intitiates, her common name was Despoina. She was a most powerful goddess, an alter ego of Gaia. One of the signs on the Phaistos Disk, occurring twice on the Elaia Disc and twice on the Tiryns Disc, is a strange woman with a protruding face and hair growing into a mane – Demeter Elaia turning into a mare, becoming Black Demeter Melaina. In a grotto of Elaia’s grove at Phigalia, Pausanias tells us, was kept a rather shocking wooden statue, black, of a woman with the head of a mare. On the Elaia Disc are fifteen baking ovens, five portable beehives, and two bees, probably sanctuaries of the goddess in her emanation of a bee, perhaps represented in form of a wooden stela resembling the ‘bull-horned goddess in the shape of a bee’ on a stilyzed bull’s head of bone, Bilcze Zlote, northwestern Ukraine, Late Cucuteni, fourth millennium BC (Marija Gimbutas). The bee goddess, I believe, had her abode in Orion, the large constellation testifying to the importance of the small bee that was already recognized by the early farmers.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 7

 

The central sign of the Elaia Disc, a baking oven as symbol of Demeter (Elaia), reminds of the oven in the sanctuary of the bird goddess at Sabatinovka in the Southern Bug Valley, Moldavia, Early Cucuteni, while bread, made from cereals provided by Demeter and baked in her oven, is evoked by loaf-shaped clay plaques, for example the one from the Banjica site near Belgrade  kirike11.GIF  On top, in the center, appears a rectangular spiral. Spirals, in the Neolithic art of the Balkans, invoke fertility. Double spirals – one rolling up, the other rolling out – symbolize the succession of generations. Back in 2004 I attempted to read the a variety of inscriptions from the Balkans (Vinca script), beginning with cross line angle for Ki Ri Ke, hypothetical name of the bird goddess, formed along the name of Homer’s Kirkae, Latin Circe. The rectangular spiral on the loaf-shaped plaque from Banjica is surrounded by graceful inscriptions yielding kae-ri-on ‘honeycomb’, nae-os ‘sanctuary’, nae-ri-(t)-os ‘wide, large’, kae-p-on (plural) ‘little garden(s)’, and kae-p-os (plural) ‘garden(s)’  kirike07.GIF  kirike08.GIF  There might have been a garden sanctuary of the bird goddess at Banjica near Belgrade, Kirike’s grove, in the center a rectangular spiral, baking ovens, small and big gardens, bed and patches and orchards and groves covering a fairly wide area, and in between beehives and bee sanctuaries. Elaia’s grove at Phigalia may have been a late survivor of this kind of Neolithic sanctuary of the Goddess. The grim story of Poseidon and Demeter might keep a memory of the onset of the Bronze Age, when riders coming from the far away Lowland of Turan arrived via Thessaly in the Argolis, overpowering the civilization of the goddess in the sense of Marija Gimbutas. In Arcadia, removed from the Argolis, it may have survived for a longer time, and it may well have been that Eponymus Tiryns cared for a balance between the new and old ways, visiting Elaia’s grove and learning from the priestesses of Demeter Elaia, consulting the oracle of Nyx.

 

The gold ring from Mokhlos in Crete shows Elaia in a boat, the bow turning into the head of a stallion, Poseidon leering at Eleia; on the shore, but depicted as if in the boat, a stylized olive tree; and in the sky a bee heading for the hive on the side  elaia.GIF  The inscription on a bronze double axe from a cave near Akrolochori shares a few signs with the Phaistos Disc and was also deciphered by Derk Ohlenroth, It invokes Lousia ‘the angry one’, Minoan alter ego of Black Demeter Melaina from Ealia’s grove in Phigalia:  D Ae I O Y S  LO (Y) S (I) A  E I M I  ‘I belong to the goddess Lousia’.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 8)

 

Let us reconsider the Homeric lineage in a more complete form: TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus – ARC Arkeisios – Eponymus Slryns Tiryns / Lord Laertes the gardener – Odysseus – Telemachus. TYR would represent the mythic rulers from the banks of the Amu Darya and the Lowland of Turan, first Indo-Euroepan homeland, some 5,500 years ago, Early Bronze Age. Arkeisios may represent the groups of people who left the Turan Basin, wandering along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, following the Caucasus Mountain Range, clad in bear furs, big and strong as bears, therefore ARC meaning bear, following the northern shore of the Black Sea, coming to Thessaly, then to the Argolis, and erecting the Circular Building on the limestone hill of Tiryns. Eponymus Slryns (Tiryns) would have been the historical ruler of Tiryns in around 1650 BC, and may as the gardener Lord Laertes stand for the entire Middle Helladic period of time, contemporary to the Middle Minoan period of time. Odysseus represents the military power of Greece in the Late Bronze Age, around 1200 BC (Troy having fallen in the summer of 1184 BC), and Telemachus represents Greece in Homer’s time of the Messenian wars, Homer fears a new Polyphem (anticipating Gyges) and the breaking up of Greece, he tries to unite the Greek homeland and the islands and the colonies. Greek history was ridden with wars, but there might have been a rather peaceful period, the Middle Helladic, personified by Eponymus Tiryns who seeked a balance between the old and new ways, cared most of all for agriculture, would have spared the Argolis the dire fate of a famine, had a flair for the fine arts, and used the first alphabet in the history of humankind, invented by a Minoan scribe with connections to Asia Minor, probably of Semitic origin.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 9

 

Middle Helladic Greek is by one thousand years older than Homeric Greek, and offers a couple of surprises, above all Sseyr for Zeus and Slryns for Tiryns. I derive both from Magdalenian TYR meaning overcomer, as verb to overcome in the double sense of rule and give. The shift from the intial T- to the sharpened sibilant Ss- reminds of the third Magdalenian law according to which an S-word is a comparative form of a D-word, occasionally also of a T-word, Pronounce TYR in such a forceful way that it becomes an Ss-word, and it will automatically shift from -y- to -ey-, Sseyr. Slryns might perhaps be derived as follows (and if so would represent a case of an oscillation, returning to a form close to the original):

 

   TYR    slYR    slRyns    TiRyns

 

The Tiryns text may be seen as an early illustration of the classical formula Zeus Dios, Zeus a derivative of TYR, Dios a derivative of DhAG meaning able, good in the sense of able, a word of very many derivatives. Among them is English fox. The fox held a prominent place in the mythology and iconography of the Göbekli Tepe, being the able guide of souls through the labirynth of the Underworld and back to daylight, On a charming alloyed silver stater from Brittany appears the horse of the early morning, probably midsummer morning, under it, peeping out from a tunnel, the snout and head and eye of a fox, obviously the fox that guided the sunhorse through the labirynth of the Underworld  menhir5h.GIF  Then we have Latin dux ‘leader’, French duc and English duke, Dios and Dis being the highest leaders, up above in the sky, giving us the day, Latin dies English day German Tag. The rosette of eight petals has the phonetical value Ss on the Tiryns Disc, marking the begin of Sseyr, a derivative of TYR, while it has the phonetical value dingir in the Sumerian script, a word I derive from DhAG, along the same line as German taugen zeugen (werk-)Zeug Ding, so that the rosette in the center of the Tiryns Disc is in itself a short form of TYR DhAG which became Zeus Dios. Klaus Schmidt believes that the Göbekli Tepe was the sacred Du-ku mountain of early Sumerian mythology, and if so, it would have been the hill of the Able Ones DhAG. Assyrian dag means help. Deities are able, they can help, and their greatest help was giving you the day, the day of this life on earth, and the day of a next life in the beyond …

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 10

 

SsEYR  KI  PhAAiNNOS  SsEyR  Ai  YLKIOS    Zeus is the shining one also when Zeus is the Lycaion one    NYX  SLAS  AIEN NEO:THOS    Nyx, always born anew by the Goddess. – At the begin of the Tiryns text we have Zeus the shining one, giving us the day, and at the end of the Elaia Disc we have Nyx, powerful goddess of the night, always born anew by the Goddess. Zeus Dios derives from TYR DHAG, while Nyx as daughter of the Goddess derives from DhAG TYR Greek thygataer English daughter, in the full possession of life and the power of giving life – while the god gives us the day, born out of light, as it were, the goddess gives us life, born out of darkness. The name of Nyx ‘Night’ goes back to Magdalenian NYG, inverse GYN for woman. As alter ego of Gaia, powerful Nyx was certainly much older than the classical deities. and not a daughter, but a goddess of her own standing, named by the formula DHAG TYR, able DhAG overcomer TYR that rules and gives.

 

When I wish to get a glimpse of the origin of a Greek deity, Homer’s Odyssey proves to be most helpful: I look up the first mention of a god or a goddess. It struck me as curious that Zeus in the simple form of the nominative is preceded by other titles and name forms: 1:10 Dios, byname of Zeus / 1:27 Zaneos, genitive / 1:28 pataer andro:n te theo:n ‘father of men and gods’ / 1:45 Kronidae ‘son of Chronos’ / 1:60 Olympie, the supreme god residing on Mount Olympus (while the Pre-Helladic god of Arcadia, later identified with Zeus, resided on top of Mount Lycaion) / 1:62 Zeu, vocative / 1:63 Zeus. It takes quite a while until we read the unveiled and unflexed name of Zeus. In 1:10 he is invoked as father of Athaena, or she as daughter of Zeus: thea, thygataer Dios – goddess, daughter of Dios. The curious idea of Athaena springing in full armor from the head of Zeus may indicate that this was a classical reinterpretation of a very ancient formula that we may now hope to reconstruct via the classical formula thea, thygataer Dios. Thea and thyga- and Dios derivative from DhAG, and –taer from TYR, so we have the formula

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG

 

which may be translated as follows

 

   Able one, able overcomer

   that rules and gives,

   O able one!

 

Nyx as daughter of Demeter Elaia in the guise of a horse and Poseidon in the guise of a stallion were called forth by beating the ground, perhaps also by trampling, imitating a pair of horses. The priest of the Eleusian Demeter cult of Pheneos near Phigalia veiled his face and called on the ‘subterraneans’ by beating the ground with rods or switches. Iliad 9:566-572 is the most famous instance of another way of calling on the subterraneans: “… beating the bountiful earth with her fists, as she called on Hades and august Persephone …” Beating the ground as if knocking on a door made sense in the case of chthonic deities. Demeter and Elaia and Nyx as alter ego of Gaia were such goddesses. Note the hammering and rapping rhythm of the hypothetical formula that called her forth: DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG (repeated several times, we may imagine).

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 11

 

The Neolithic formula calling on the goddess would have been reinterpreted in younger times

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG

 

   Able one, able overcomer

   that rules and gives,

   O able one!

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG

 

   thea, thygataer Dios

 

   DhAG    Dios Dis deus dea theos thea divine …

 

   TYR    Sseyr Sseus Zeus

 

   DhAG DhAG    Dagda    Thoth

 

   TYR DhAG    Dis pater, Dios pataer, dyaus pita

 

The first half of the hypothetical formula, DhAG DhAG, would have become the name of the supreme Celtic god Dagda, the good god in the sense of the able god, also Egptian Thoth, able able, of the able mind, the god of wisdom. The second half of the formula, TYR DhAG, became Zeus Dios (put the stress on –os by subtly lengthening the second syllable, Di o s). The importance of TYR and DhAG are confirmed by the inverse forms. RYT meaning spear thrower, archer, Greek rhytaer ‘archer, protector’ (consider also the sun archer Tir of the Armenian Bronze Age) and German Ritter ‘knight’ and Ross und Reiter ‘horse and rider, riding archer’, while GADh accounts for English good and god. DhAG and GADh hint at a philosophical problem: can the able one, the almighty, also be the universally and uniformly good god? The wisdom of language doesn’t force them together. DhAG accounts for Dios Dis deus dea theos thea divine … but also for diobal devil Teufel, from DhAG BAL, able DhAG heat BAL, personification of fire (in Switzerland we know a Füürtüüfel ‘fire devil’). English demon is an evil spirit, while the mailer demon of the Internet renders a good service. Greek daimonion is of a double nature: divine being, deity; (divine) providence, fate, disaster; demon, evil spirit, devil / daimonion of Socrates: a kind of divine voice, supernatural, wonderful / as address, oh daimonie: incomprehensible one, strange one, unfortunate one. The word goes back to DhAG MAN, able DhAG right hand MAN, denoting an invisible presence acting as if in the possession of a right hand. DhAG is the able one, whether good or bad, while GADh is the good one.

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 12

 

If the Neolithic formula DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG was known in the Balkans and used for calling on the goddess we may expect that it left traces in the Vinca art and script.

 

Let us contemplate how the goddess was called forth: by trampling or by beating the ground with rods or switches (both possibilities suggested by the Elaia Disc), by kneeling on the ground and beating it with both fists (Iliad 9), also, we may assume, by kneeling and touching the ground with the forehead, either reverently or in desperation. We can then relate the formula to the body

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG

 

   hand, feet head, hand

 

and find resonance in the Vinca figurines of the standing goddess with outstretched arms: her one hand, her feet and head, and her other hand, and all of her in between. The abstract version of this would be the cross, a prominent Vinca signs. The phonmetical value of the Vinca cross is Ki as begin of the name of the bird goddess cross line angle Ki Ri Ke or Kirike, formed along Homer’s Kirkae, Latin Circe. The cross read as Ki would then call on the goddess in her emanation of a bird (owl-eyed Athaena gave her name to the tawny owl Athena noctua, among its calls are a sharp descending kihu, and a high warning kji kji kji), while the cross representing the formula DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG would call on the goddess in her shape of a woman.

 

If we shorten the formula by subsuming the third DhAG under the first one we obtain DhAG, DhAG TYR, hands, feet head, and if we replace the second DhAG with PAD for the activity of feet we obtain DhAG, PAD TYR, the able one DhAG who goes ahead and leads the way PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR, wherefrom Latin Dis pater, Greek Dios pataer, and Sanskrit (Vedic) dyaus pita.

 

Further variations of the original formula yield Greek thygataer diwos, Sanskrit dukita divah, and Lithuanian dievo dukte. Greek thygataer diwos, identified as dawn, confirms the connection between DhAG and and dies day Tag and makes the Neolithic formula gain a cosmic dimension: the goddess standing on the ground, her head in the sky, stretching out her arms, with her eastern hand waving on the day, with her western hand waving off the day – making the day begin and end and a new day begin, making life begin and end and a new life begin …

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 13

 

The elegant female figurines from el-Mamariya in Upper Egypt are more complete versions of the cosmic goddess  eg1a.gif  eg1b.GIF  The lower part of her body in the shape of a carrot symbolizes the fertile earth, her chest the surface of the earth, her breasts the nourishment we find on the earth, her raised arms the slopes of the eastern and western hills of the Nile Valley, her hands the stars that rise from the eastern horizon and set on the western horizon (five fingers, five points of an Egyptian star), her head of a bird the sky, her eyes moon and sun, while her pose may be seen as a still from a dance of creation whose various stages are preserved in the art of Predynastic Egypt and other Mediterranean regions: hands on the womb (child of mine) hands on her breasts (I nourish you) arms raised, fingertips touching the head (I am the world for you) opening the circle of the arms (you shall be born, also born again) spreading the fingers (and see the many things in the world, also in the beyond) … These figurines probably adorned Predynastic tombs and were stuck in the ground, equating the earth with her fertile womb.

 

The standing Vinca goddess with her outstretched arms embodies the Neolithic formula and certainly made the same promise of a second life in the beyond.

 

We may assume that this formula was known in early Egypt and accounted for Thoth as polished form of Dagda, able able, of the able mind, god of wisdom, husband of Seshat who came long before him and was worshipped as The One Who Wrote First. She was the goddess of the calendar, and he was the god of the calendar, while the bird head of the Predynastic goddess became the Horus falcon whose eyes were moon and sun. Seth destroyed the lunar eye of the Horus falcon, whereupon wise Thoth healed it, adding up the six numerical parts of the Horus eye, 1/2 plus 1/4 plus 1/8 plus 1/16 plus 1/32 plus 1/64, or simply ’2 ’4 ’8 ’16 ’32 ’64, and calling the restored lunar eye The Whole One. However, the numbers don’t really add up to one, a little part is missing. Why then The Whole One? Multiply an Egyptian month of 30 days by the series ’2 ’4 ’8 ’16 ’32 ’64 and you obtain 29 ’2’32 days, or 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, one whole lunation or synodic month, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half a day in a lifetime. This excellent value for a lunation is the same as the one of the lunisolar Göbekli Tepe calendar and the dingir calendar of Mesopotamia and the lunisolar calendar indicated by the rosette of eight petals on the Phaistos Disc, also present on beautiful Karames ware from Middle Minoan Crete, where the rosette may be called ‘eye of the god seeing the day’ …

 

 

Phaistos Disc   part 14

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR, DhAG

 

   Able one, able overcomer

   that rules and gives,

   O able one!

 

   hand, feet head, hand

 

   DhAG, DhAG TYR

 

   hands, feet head

 

   DhAG, PAD TYR

 

   the able one DhAG who goes ahead

   and leads the way (activity of feet) PAD

   and overcomes in the double sense of

   rule and give TYR

 

   ShA PAD TYR AS CA

 

   the ruler ShA who goes ahead (activity

   of feet) PAD and overcomes in the double

   sense of rule and give TYR up above

   (upward) AS in the sky CA

 

   SA TYR NOS

 

   mind NOS of the one who overcomes

   in the double sense of rule and give TYR

   from above (downward) SA

 

DhAG, DhAG TYR. DhAG would have been the Neolithic formula calling on the goddess, who was later turned into the daughter of the god, thea, thygataer Dios, The god was called on by the formula DhAG, PAD TYR, Latin Dis pater, Greek Dios pataer, Vedic dyaus pita, while a further and longer variant, ShA PAD TYR AS CA, invoked the supreme weather god, ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove, TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus, consider also the Serri bull of the supeme Hittite weather god, ShA CA Jahwe, rider of clouds from Mount Seir (!) in the Negev, TYR CA Turk-, ShA PAD Shiva and TYR CA Durga, an emanation of Shiva’s wive. A polished version of the long formula ShA PAD TYR AS CA survived in the name of the village Giubiasco in southern Switzerland, on a bend of the river Ticino, where the lovely Italian landscape of the Lago Maggiore with Ascona and Locarno goes over into the grim scenery of the Swiss Alps, and where Neolithic tradesmen heading for the mountains implored the god for good weather, while those coming from the mountains thanked for the good weather and luck they had in crossing the Alps. A further and shorter variant of the formula, SA TYR NOS, accounts for Saturnus Saturn, founder of the golden age of Latium, also for TYRSANOS mentioned on an Etruscan shard found in the agora of Athens.

 

Where did the linguistically problematic De- or Da- (Kretschmer) of Demeter come from? Years ago I proposed AD DA MAI TYR as origin of Demeter, she who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR and watches over the coming to AD and going from DA female zone of the camp MAI. This would have been a triple goddess, uniting the fire giver PIR GID who had the say  ) or L or  )OG or LOG (wherefrom El or Elohim the Lord and logos and Allah) and the fur giver BIR GID and the fertility giver BRI GID. Considering the importance of DhAG we might postulate a second and younger variant of AD DA MAI TYR, namely DhAG MAI TYR, the able one(s) of the female zone of the camp MAI who overcome(s) in the double sense of rule and give TYR, paired with DhAG PAD TYR, the able one DhAG who goes ahead and leads the way PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR, wherefrom Dis pater and Dios pataer and dyaus pita; MAI TYR maetaer mater mother, PAD TYR pataer pater father, she worshipped on the Elaia Disc, he on the Tiryns Disc. Linear A tablet 95 from Hagia Triada near Phaistos in the translation of Walther Hinz offers a parallel: one side addressing the god (Adu Haddu Hadad Baal) and enumerating the cereals for him or rather his priests, the other side addressing the goddess (Dadumatha, the one loved by master Baal) and enumerating the cereals for her or rather her priestesses. Demeter and her Roman alter ego Ceres were goddesses of cereals. Magdalenian CER means stag / hind, emblematic animal of the shaman / shamaness, indicating that women played an important role in the invention of agriculture, and that the female zone embraced the fields and orchards, also Neolithic garden sanctuaries including Elaia’s grove at Phigalia at the base of Mount Lycaion, abode of a Pre-Helladic god who was later identified with the shining Zeus of Tiryns …

 

 

The continuation of my Magdalenian experiment is found on Usenet, Wild Wild West of the World Wide Web: a series of messages regarding the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and mining / more etymologies, for example CAP KOD accounting for Latin caput Old English heafod Middle English he(v)ed New English head, from 1) CAP – to hunt and capture horses – to count the numbers of animals in a herd by their heads – head, and from 2) KOD – tent, hut – casing of any sort – the head as casing of the mind – head, whereupon 3) the converging chains of associations were alloyed in a compound and then word / or the etymology of lyre, Greek and Latin lyra, from  ) AAR RAA TYR or L AAR RAA TYR, the heavenly one made of air AAR and light RAA who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR has the say  ) or L, and also we bards who sing his praise in words have got some of that say, wherefrom Mycenaean ra-ru-te-a ‘lyrists’ (r and l were given by the same letter), name of the bards living in the first Indo-European homeland between the Alai Mountains and the Aral Sea, 5,500 years ago, authors and compilers of the AD LAS Atlantis epic / and and and

 

One important chapter, however, shall be included here:

 

 

TYR and DhAG

 

TYR --- she or he who overcomes in the double sense o rule and give, TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus

 

PAD --- activity of feet

 

PAS (comparative form of PAD) --- everywhere (in a plain), here, south and north of me, east and west of me

 

TYR PAS --- the overcomer who rules and gives TYR everywhere PAS, the supreme god of weather and time that overcome everybody everywhere

 

PAS TYR --- perhaps the name of the former supreme god of Arcadia residing on top of Mount Lycaion, from where one has a breath-taking view over the Peloponnese, and where a pre-Greek altar and a seal carved from a gem have been found not very long ago, accounting for Latin pastor ‘herdsman’, so the god would have been the supreme herdsman, later on TYR would have become Sseyr Sseus Zeus, and PAS would have become Pan, a minor god in the Greek pantheon preserving the specific traits of the former supreme god and herdsman of Arcadia

 

DhAG --- able, good in the sense of able, epithet of the supreme god, and a word for any deity

 

  DhAG    DheAG    thea theos

 

  DhAG    DiAG / DeAG    Dea Deus

 

DhAG DhAG --- able able, accounting for Dagda, the supreme Celtic god, the good god in the sense of the able god

 

DhAG NOS --- able DhAG mind NOS, perhaps accounting for the Roman Faunus, a legendary king who became the prophesizing god of the fields and woods (Illyrian Daunus), later identified with Pan of Arcadia who taught his mantic art to Apollo; someone who can foresee and foretell the future certainly is an able mind, also a reference to herdsmen who could foretell the weather and read signs in the sky and on earth, for example the forms of clouds and traces left by animals, augurs avant la lettre

 

DhAG PAS --- able DhAG everywhere PAS, formula for the general presence of the supreme god, and of any deity

 

  DhAG PAS    DeAG woS    *deiwos  *divius  *dyeus

 

  DhAG    DeAG    *dei ‘to shine’

 

A human fire brightens a limited space while the sky lit by the god of daylight brightnes the whole world, so this god certainly was an able one DhAG …

 

PAD TYR --- he who goes (activity of feet) and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR, naming the individual presence of the supreme god, approaching you personally, accounting for Greek pataer Latin pater Sanskrit pita

 

DhAG PAS, PAD TYR --- double formula for the general and individual presence of the supreme god, accounting for *dyeus phter, Illyrian Dei-patrous and Sanskrit dyaeus pita

 

ShA PAD TYR --- the ruler ShA goes ahead (activity of feet) PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule and give TYR, accounting for Jupitter Jupiter Jovis Giove as weather god

 

ShA PAD TYR and DhAG PAS, PAD TYR --- Jupiter

 

TYR PAS --- overcomer TYR everywhere PAS, the supreme god of weather and time that overcome everybody everywhere, the weather ruling the life of the farmers but also providing rain and sunshine that make the plants grow; time ruling our lives but also given to us so that we make the best of it and use in a fertile way

 

TYR (PAS), PAD TYR and DhAG NOS, PAD TYR --- Zeus pataer

 

Justifying the long formula of the Zeus name with the long formula of the Poseidon name, Poseidon originally the god of rivers:

 

PAD AD DA, PAS TON --- he who follows (activity of feet) PAD rivers that flow toward AD the sea while coming from DA the hills or mountains (AD DA being a generic name for a river, also used for trading routes) and wherever he comes to (everywhere) PAS he makes himself heard TON

 

TYR and DhAG are interchangeable to some extent but have their specific meanings and should not be nivellated.

 

 

 

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